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<p><b>Abstract</b>—During the last years, a number of formal specification languages for knowledge-based systems has been developed. Characteristics for knowledge-based systems are a complex knowledge base and an inference engine which uses this knowledge to solve a given problem. Specification languages for knowledge-based systems have to cover both aspects. They have to provide the means to specify a complex and large amount of knowledge and they have to provide the means to specify the dynamic reasoning behavior of a knowledge-based system. This paper focuses on the second aspect. For this purpose, we survey existing approaches for specifying dynamic behavior in related areas of research. In fact, we have taken approaches for the specification of information systems (Language for Conceptual Modeling and T<scp>roll</scp>), approaches for the specification of database updates and logic programming (Transaction Logic and Dynamic Database Logic) and the generic specification framework of Abstract State Machines.</p>
Specification languages, knowledge-based systems, dynamics, inference control, update logics.

F. van Harmelen, M. Willems, D. Fensel, Y. Venema, J. Engelfriet and P. van Eck, "A Survey of Languages for Specifying Dynamics: A Knowledge Engineering Perspective," in IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol. 13, no. , pp. 462-496, 2001.
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