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<p><b>Abstract</b>—Past research in message logging has focused on studying the relative overhead imposed by pessimistic, optimistic, and causal protocols during failure-free executions. In this paper, we give the first experimental evaluation of the performance of these protocols during recovery. Our results suggest that applications face a complex trade-off when choosing a message logging protocol for fault tolerance. On the one hand, optimistic protocols can provide fast failure-free execution and good performance during recovery, but are complex to implement and can create orphan processes. On the other hand, orphan-free protocols either risk being slow during recovery, e.g., sender-based pessimistic and causal protocols, or incur a substantial overhead during failure-free execution, e.g., receiver-based pessimistic protocols. To address this trade-off, we propose <it>hybrid</it> logging protocols, a new class of orphan-free protocols. We show that hybrid protocols perform within two percent of causal logging during failure-free execution and within two percent of receiver-based logging during recovery.</p>
Distributed computing, fault tolerance, log-based rollback recovery, pessimistic protocols, optimistic protocols, causal protocols, hybrid protocols.

H. M. Vin, L. Alvisi and S. Rao, "The Cost of Recovery in Message Logging Protocols," in IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol. 12, no. , pp. 160-173, 2000.
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