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<p><b>Abstract</b>—Mobile computing introduces a new form of distributed computation in which communication is most often intermittent, low-bandwidth, or expensive, thus providing only weak connectivity. In this paper, we present a replication scheme tailored for such environments. Bounded inconsistency is defined by allowing controlled deviation among copies located at weakly connected sites. A dual database interface is proposed that in addition to read and write operations with the usual semantics supports weak read and write operations. In contrast to the usual read and write operations that read consistent values and perform permanent updates, weak operations access only local and potentially inconsistent copies and perform updates that are only conditionally committed. Exploiting weak operations supports disconnected operation since mobile clients can employ them to continue to operate even while disconnected. The extended database interface coupled with bounded inconsistency offers a flexible mechanism for adapting replica consistency to the networking conditions by appropriately balancing the use of weak and normal operations. Adjusting the degree of divergence among copies provides additional support for adaptivity. We present transaction-oriented correctness criteria for the proposed schemes, introduce corresponding serializability-based methods, and outline protocols for their implementation. Then, some practical examples of their applicability are provided. The performance of the scheme is evaluated for a range of networking conditions and varying percentages of weak transactions by using an analytical model developed for this purpose.</p>
Mobile computing, concurrency control, replication, consistency, disconnected operation, transaction management, adaptability.

E. Pitoura and B. Bhargava, "Data Consistency in Intermittently Connected Distributed Systems," in IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol. 11, no. , pp. 896-915, 1999.
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