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<p><b>Abstract</b>—Conventional database systems are designed for managing textual and numerical data, and retrieving such data is often based on simple comparisons of text/numerical values. However, this simple method of retrieval is no longer adequate for the multimedia data, since the digitized representation of images, video, or data itself does not convey the reality of these media items. In addition, composite data consisting of heterogeneous types of data also associates with the semantic content acquired by a user's recognition. Therefore, content-based retrieval for multimedia data is realized taking such intrinsic features of multimedia data into account. Implementation of the content-based retrieval facility is not based on a single fundamental, but is closely related to an underlying data model, a priori knowledge of the area of interest, and the scheme for representing queries. This paper surveys recent studies on content-based retrieval for multimedia databases from the point of view of three fundamental issues. Throughout the discussion, we assume databases that manage only nontextual/numerical data, such as image or video, are also in the category of multimedia databases.</p>
Multimedia databases, content-based retrieval, spatio-temporal relation, query-by-example, knowledge.

T. Ichikawa and A. Yoshitaka, "A Survey on Content-Based Retrieval for Multimedia Databases," in IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol. 11, no. , pp. 81-93, 1999.
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