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Issue No. 04 - July/August (1998 vol. 10)
ISSN: 1041-4347
pp: 513-526
<p><b>Abstract</b>—We present a particular way of building ontologies that proceeds in a bottom-up fashion. Concepts are defined in a way that mirrors the way their instances are composed out of smaller objects. The smaller objects themselves may also be modeled as being composed. Bottom-up ontologies are flexible through the use of implicit and, hence, parsimonious part-whole and subconcept-superconcept relations. The bottom-up method complements current practice, where, as a rule, ontologies are built top-down. The design method is illustrated by an example involving ontologies of pure substances at several levels of detail. It is not claimed that bottom-up construction is a generally valid recipe; indeed, such recipes are deemed uninformative or impossible. Rather, the approach is intended to enrich the ontology developer's toolkit.</p>
Knowledge engineering, knowledge base management, ontology, knowledge integration, domain model, hierarchical reasoning.

P. E. van der Vet and N. J. Mars, "Bottom-Up Construction of Ontologies," in IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol. 10, no. , pp. 513-526, 1998.
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