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<p><b>Abstract</b>—There is an ever-increasing demand for more complex transactions and higher throughputs in transaction processing systems leading to higher degrees of transaction concurrency and, hence, higher data contention. The conventional two-phase locking (2PL) Concurrency Control (CC) method may, therefore, restrict system throughput to levels inconsistent with the available processing capacity. This is especially a concern in shared-nothing or data-partitioned systems due to the extra latencies for internode communication and a reliable commit protocol. The optimistic CC (OCC) is a possible solution, but currently proposed methods have the disadvantage of repeated transaction restarts. We present a distributed OCC method followed by locking, such that locking is an integral part of distributed validation and two-phase commit. This method ensures at most one re-execution, if the validation for the optimistic phase fails. Deadlocks, which are possible with 2PL, are prevented by preclaiming locks for the second execution phase. This is done in the same order at all nodes. We outline implementation details and compare the performance of the new OCC method with distributed 2PL through a detailed simulation that incorporates queueing effects at the devices of the computer systems, buffer management, concurrency control, and commit processing. It is shown that for higher data contention levels, the hybrid OCC method allows a much higher maximum transaction throughput than distributed 2PL in systems with high processing capacities. In addition to the comparison of CC methods, the simulation study is used to study the effect of varying the number of computer systems with a fixed total processing capacity and the effect of locality of access in each case. We also describe several interesting variants of the proposed OCC method, including methods for handling access variance, i.e., when rerunning a transaction results in accesses to a different set of objects.</p>
Distributed database systems, transaction processing, optimistic concurrency control, access invariance, commit protocols, system performance modeling.

A. Thomasian, "Distributed Optimistic Concurrency Control Methods for High-Performance Transaction Processing," in IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol. 10, no. , pp. 173-189, 1998.
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