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<p><b>Abstract</b>—We present a general approach for modeling temporal aspects of objects in a logic programming framework. Change is formulated in the context of a database which stores explicitly a record of all changes that have occurred to objects and thus (implicitly) all states of objects in the database. A snapshot of the database at any given time is an object-oriented database, in the sense that it supports an object-based data model. An object is viewed as a collection of simple atomic formulas, with support for an explicit notion of object identity, classes and inheritance. The event calculus is a treatment of time and change in first-order classical logic augmented with negation as failure. The paper develops a variant of the event calculus for representing changes to objects, including change in internal state of objects, creation and deletion of objects, and mutation of objects over time. The concluding sections present two natural and straightforward extensions, to deal with versioning of objects and schema evolution, and a sketch of implementation strategies for practical application to temporal object-oriented databases.</p>
Object-oriented databases, object versioning, deductive databases, temporal databases, temporal reasoning, event calculus, logic programming.

F. N. Kesim and M. Sergot, "A Logic Programming Framework for Modeling Temporal Objects," in IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol. 8, no. , pp. 724-741, 1996.
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