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<p><b>Abstract</b>—We describe an approach for multiparadigmatic visual access to databases, which is proposed to achieve seamless integration of different interaction paradigms. The user is provided with an adaptive interface augmented by a user model, supporting different visual representations of both data and queries. The visual representations are characterized on the basis of the chosen visual formalisms, namely forms, diagrams, and icons. To access different databases, a unified data model, the Graph Model, is used as a common underlying formalism to which databases, expressed in the most popular data models, can be mapped. Graph Model databases are queried through the adaptive interface. The semantics of the query operations is formally defined in terms of graphical primitives. Such a formal approach permits us to define the concept of "atomic query," which is the minimal portion of a query that can be transferred from one interaction paradigm to another and processed by the system. Since certain interaction modalities and visual representations are more suitable for certain user classes, the system can suggest to the user the most appropriate interaction modality as well as the visual representation, according to the user model. Some results on user model construction are presented.</p>
Visual query system, multiparadigmatic interaction, user model, adaptive visual interface, graph-based data model, heterogeneous databases.

M. F. Costabile, G. Santucci, S. Chang, T. Catarci and S. Levialdi, "A Graph-Based Framework for Multiparadigmatic Visual Access to Databases," in IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol. 8, no. , pp. 455-475, 1996.
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