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<p><it>Abstract</it>—Inductive machine learning has become an important approach to automated knowledge acquisition from databases. The disjunctive normal form (DNF), as the common analytic representation of decision trees and decision tables (rules), provides a basis for formal analysis of uncertainty and complexity in inductive learning. In this paper, a theory for general decision trees is developed based on Shannon’s expansion of the discrete DNF, and a probabilistic induction system PIK is further developed for extracting knowledge from real-world data. Then we combine formal and practical approaches to study how data characteristics affect the uncertainty and complexity in inductive learning. Three important data characteristics, namely, disjunctiveness, noise and incompleteness, are studied. The combination of leveled-pruning, leveled-condensing and resampling-estimation turns out to be a very powerful method for dealing with highly-disjunctive and inadequate data. Finally the PIK system is compared with other recent inductive learning systems on a number of real-world domains.</p>
Complexity, decision trees, disjunctive normal forms, knowledge acquisition, machine learning, uncertainty

X. M. Zhou and T. S. Dillon, "Theoretical and Practical Considerations of Uncertainty and Complexity in Automated Knowledge Acquisition," in IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol. 7, no. , pp. 699-712, 1995.
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