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<p>Virtually all semantic or object-oriented data models assume that objects have an identity separate from any of their parts, and allow users to define complex object types in which part values may be any other objects. This often results in a choice of query language in which a user can express navigating from one object to another by following a property value path. We consider a constraint language in which one may express equations and functional dependencies over complex object types. The language is novel in the sense that component attributes of individual constraints may correspond to property paths. The kind of equations we consider are also important, because they are a natural abstraction of the class of conjunctive queries for query languages that support property value navigation. In our introductory comments, we give an example of such a query and outline two applications of the constraint theory to problems relating to a choice of access plan for the query. We present a sound and complete axiomatization of the constraint language for the case in which interpretations are permitted to be infinite, where interpretations themselves correspond to a form of directed labeled graph. Although the implication problem for our form of equational constraint alone over arbitrary schema is undecidable, we present decision procedures for the implication problem for both kinds of constraints when the problem schema satisfies a stratification condition, and when all input functional dependencies are keys.</p>
object-oriented databases; query languages; query processing; data structures; database management systems; constraint theory; directed graphs; database theory; reasoning; equations; functional dependencies; complex objects; semantic data models; object-oriented data models; complex object types; query language; property value path; constraint language; property paths; conjunctive queries; query languages; property value navigation; constraint theory; directed labeled graph; equational constraint; undecidable; decision procedures; stratification condition

G. Weddell and M. van Bommel, "Reasoning About Equations and Functional Dependencies on Complex Objects," in IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol. 6, no. , pp. 455-469, 1994.
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