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<p>One of the approaches for integrating object-oriented programs with databases is to instantiate objects from relational databases by evaluating view queries. In that approach, it is often necessary to evaluate some joins of the query by left outer joins to prevent information loss caused by the tuples discarded by inner joins. It is also necessary to filter some relations with selection conditions to prevent the retrieval of unwanted nulls. The system should automatically prescribe joins as inner or left outer joins and generate the filters, rather than letting them be specified manually for every view definition. We develop such a mechanism in this paper. We first develop a rigorous system model to facilitate the mapping between an object-oriented model and the relational model. The system model provides a well-defined context for developing a simple mechanism. The mechanism requires only one piece of information from users: null options on an object attribute. The semantics of these options are mapped to non-null constraints on the query result. Then the system prescribes joins and generates filters accordingly. We also address reducing the number of left outer joins and the filters so that the query can be processed more efficiently.</p>
relational databases; relational algebra; object-oriented programming; query processing; outer joins; relational databases; object-oriented programs; view queries; left outer joins; information loss; tuples; inner joins; selection conditions; filters; view definition; rigorous system model; null options; object attribute; semantics; object instantiation

G. Wiederhold and B. Lee, "Outer Joins and Filters for Instantiating Objects from Relational Databases Through Views," in IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol. 6, no. , pp. 108-119, 1994.
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