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<p>The knowledge acquisition bottleneck has become the major impediment to the development and application of effective information systems. To remove this bottleneck, new document processing techniques must be introduced to automatically acquire knowledge from various types of documents. By presenting a survey on the techniques and problems involved, this paper aims at serving as a catalyst to stimulate research in automatic knowledge acquisition through document processing. In this study, a document is considered to have two structures: geometric structure and logical structure. These play a key role in the process of the knowledge acquisition, which can be viewed as a process of acquiring the above structures. Extracting the geometric structure from a document refers to document analysis; mapping the geometric structure into logical structure is regarded as document understanding. Both areas are described in this paper, and the basic concept of document structure and its measurement based on entropy analysis is introduced. Logical structure and geometric models are proposed. Both top-down and bottom-up approaches and their entropy analyses are presented. Different techniques are discussed with practical examples. Mapping methods, such as tree transformation, document formatting knowledge and document format description language, are described.</p>
knowledge acquisition; document handling; visual databases; deductive databases; document processing; automatic knowledge acquisition; knowledge acquisition bottleneck; information systems; geometric structure; logical structure; document analysis; document understanding; entropy analysis; bottom-up approaches; top-down approaches; geometric models; mapping methods; tree transformation; document formatting knowledge; document format description language

C. Suen, C. Yan and Y. Tang, "Document Processing for Automatic Knowledge Acquisition," in IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol. 6, no. , pp. 3-21, 1994.
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