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<p>Concurrent execution of transactions in database management systems (DBMSs) may lead to contention for access to data, which in a multilevel secure DBMS (MLS/DBMS) may lead to insecurity. Security issues involved in database concurrency control for MLS/DBMSs are examined, and it is shown how a scheduler can affect security. Data conflict security, (DC-security), a property that implies a system is free of covert channels due to contention for access to data, is introduced. A definition of DC-security based on noninterference is presented. Two properties that constitute a necessary condition for DC-security are introduced along with two simpler necessary conditions. A class of schedulers called output-state-equivalent is identified for which another criterion implies DC-security. The criterion considers separately the behavior of the scheduler in response to those inputs that cause rollback and those that do not. The security properties of several existing scheduling protocols are characterized. Many are found to be insecure.</p>
database concurrency control; multilevel secure database management systems; concurrent transaction execution; contention; multilevel secure DBMS; MLS/DBMS; security issues; data conflict security; covert channels; output-state-equivalent; DC-security; rollback; scheduling protocols; concurrency control; distributed databases; scheduling; security of data; transaction processing

J. Srivastava, W. Tsai and T. Keefe, "Database Concurrency Control in Multilevel Secure Database Management Systems," in IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol. 5, no. , pp. 1039-1055, 1993.
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