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<p>An examination is made of a technique to derive the time-stamp or interval of time-stamps dynamically by using limited time-stamp history information to re-order transaction at commit time and to derive a back-shifted time-stamp for certification to reduce read-write conflicts. An analytic model to quantify the performance improvement by comparison with the basic time-stamp certification scheme is developed. Since the committed conflicting transaction may itself be back-shifted, the analytic model needs to estimate the distribution of the back-shift of the certification time-stamp in order to determine the probability of successfully back-shifting a transaction requesting commit. It is shown how this relatively complex protocol can be analyzed using a few simple approximations, validate the analysis through simulations, and the range of parameter values for which this approach is most beneficial is determined.</p>
time-stamp history; certification protocol; concurrency control; commit time; back-shifted time-stamp; read-write conflicts; analytic model; conflicting transaction; probability; transaction requesting commit; approximations; concurrency control; database theory; distributed databases; protocols; transaction processing

D. Dias, P. Yu and H. Heiss, "Modeling and Analysis of a Time-Stamp History Based Certification Protocol for Concurrency Control," in IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol. 3, no. , pp. 525-537, 1991.
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