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<p>Recent developments in artificial intelligence (AI) have led to the use of knowledge-based techniques for solving scheduling problems. The authors survey several existing intelligent planning and scheduling systems with the aim of providing a guide to the main AI techniques used. In view of the prevailing difference is usage of the terms planning and scheduling between AI and operations research (OR), a taxonomy of planning and scheduling problems is presented. The modeling of real world problems from closed deterministic worlds to complex real worlds is illustrated with a project scheduling example. Some of the more successful planning and scheduling systems are surveyed, and their features are highlighted. The AI approaches are consolidated into knowledge representation and problem solving in the project management context.</p>
artificial intelligence; knowledge-based techniques; scheduling problems; intelligent planning; scheduling systems; main AI techniques; operations research; OR; real world problems; closed deterministic worlds; complex real worlds; project scheduling example; knowledge representation; problem solving; knowledge based systems; knowledge representation; problem solving; project engineering; scheduling

S. Noronha and V. Sarma, "Knowledge-Based Approaches for Scheduling Problems: A Survey," in IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol. 3, no. , pp. 160-171, 1991.
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