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Issue No. 02 - April-June (2016 vol. 9)
ISSN: 1939-1412
pp: 279-291
Dangxiao Wang , State Key Lab of Virtual Reality Technology and Systems, Beihang University, Beijing, China
Xiaohan Zhao , State Key Lab of Virtual Reality Technology and Systems, Beihang University, Beijing, China
Youjiao Shi , State Key Lab of Virtual Reality Technology and Systems, Beihang University, Beijing, China
Yuru Zhang , State Key Lab of Virtual Reality Technology and Systems, Beihang University, Beijing, China
Jianxia Hou , School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing, China
Jing Xiao , Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, NC 28223, Charlotte
ABSTRACT
Haptic simulation of handling pathological tissues is a crucial component to enhance virtual surgical training systems. In this paper, we introduce a configuration-based optimization approach to simulate the exploration and diagnosis of carious tissues in dental operations. To simulate the six Degree-of-Freedom (6DoF) haptic interaction between the dental probe and the oral tissues, we introduce two interaction states, the sliding state and the penetration state, which simulate the exploration on the surface of and inside of the caries, respectively. Penetration criteria considering a contact force threshold are defined to trigger the switch between the two states. By utilizing a simplified friction model based on the optimization approach, various multi-region frictional contacts between the probe and carious tissues are simulated. To simulate the exploration within the carious tissues for diagnosing the depth of the caries, a dynamic sphere tree is used to constrain the insertion/extraction of the probe within carious tissues along a fixed direction while enabling simulation of additional contacts of the probe with neighboring oral tissues during the insertion/extraction process. Experimental results show that decays with different levels of stiffness and friction coefficients can be stably simulated. Preliminary user studies show that users could easily identify the invisible boundary between the decay and healthy tissues and correctly rank the depth of target decays within a required time limit. The proposed approach could be used for training delicate motor skill of probing target carious teeth in a narrow oral cavity, which requires collaborated control of tool posture and insertion/extraction force, while avoiding damages to adjacent healthy tissues of the tongue and gingiva.
INDEX TERMS
Probes, Haptic interfaces, Dentistry, Friction, Teeth, Force, Solid modeling
CITATION

D. Wang, X. Zhao, Y. Shi, Y. Zhang, J. Hou and J. Xiao, "Six Degree-of-Freedom Haptic Simulation of Probing Dental Caries Within a Narrow Oral Cavity," in IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 279-291, 2016.
doi:10.1109/TOH.2016.2531660
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