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Issue No. 01 - First Quarter (2013 vol. 6)
ISSN: 1939-1412
pp: 46-57
Dawei Jia , Centre for Intell. Syst. Res., Deakin Univ., Geelong, VIC, Australia
A. Bhatti , Centre for Intell. Syst. Res. (CISR), Deakin Univ., Geelong, VIC, Australia
S. Nahavandi , Centre for Intell. Syst. Res. (CISR), Deakin Univ., Geelong, VIC, Australia
B. Horan , Sch. of Eng., Deakin Univ., Geelong, VIC, Australia
Virtual reality and simulation are becoming increasingly important in modern society and it is essential to improve our understanding of system usability and efficacy from the users' perspective. This paper introduces a novel evaluation method designed to assess human user capability when undertaking technical and procedural training using virtual training systems. The evaluation method falls under the user-centered design and evaluation paradigm and draws on theories of cognitive, skill-based and affective learning outcomes. The method focuses on user interaction with haptic-audio-visual interfaces and the complexities related to variability in users' performance, and the adoption and acceptance of the technologies. A large scale user study focusing on object assembly training tasks involving selecting, rotating, releasing, inserting, and manipulating three-dimensional objects was performed. The study demonstrated the advantages of the method in obtaining valuable multimodal information for accurate and comprehensive evaluation of virtual training system efficacy. The study investigated how well users learn, perform, adapt to, and perceive the virtual training. The results of the study revealed valuable aspects of the design and evaluation of virtual training systems contributing to an improved understanding of more usable virtual training systems.
Haptic interfaces, User centered design, Training, Ergonomics, Virtual reality, User interfaces

Dawei Jia, A. Bhatti, S. Nahavandi and B. Horan, "Human Performance Measures for Interactive Haptic-Audio-Visual Interfaces," in IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 46-57, 2013.
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