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This paper deals with the control and experimentation of a one-degree-of-freedom haptic stick, actuated by a travelling wave ultrasonic motor. This type of actuator has many interesting properties such as low-speed operation capabilities and a high torque-to-weight ratio, making it appropriate for haptic applications. However, the motor used in this application displays nonlinear behavior due to the necessary contact between its rotor and stator. Moreover, due to its energy conversion process, the torque applied to the end-effector is not a straightforward function of the supply current or voltage. This is why a force-feedback control strategy is presented, which includes an online parameter estimator. Experimental runs are then presented to examine the fidelity of the interface.
Torque control, Mathematical model, DC motors, Force feedback, Stators, Ultrasonic imaging, Real time systems

"Modeling and Compensation of the Internal Friction Torque of a Travelling Wave Ultrasonic Motor," in IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 327-331, 2011.
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