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Issue No. 04 - October-December (2011 vol. 4)
ISSN: 1939-1412
pp: 295-306
Jussi Rantala , University of Tampere, Tampere
Roope Raisamo , University of Tampere, Tampere
Jani Lylykangas , University of Tampere, Tampere
Teemu Ahmaniemi , Nokia Research Center, Helsinki
Jukka Raisamo , University of Tampere, Tampere
Jyri Rantala , Tampere University of Technology, Tampere
Kalle Makela , Tampere University of Technology, Tampere
Katri Salminen , University of Tampere, Tampere
Veikko Surakka , University of Tampere, Tampere
The sense of touch is a fundamental part of social interaction as even a short touch from another person can elicit emotional experiences. Previous studies on haptic communication indicate that the benefits of interpersonal touch exist even when touch is artificially mediated between people that are physically apart. In the current study an evaluation of three input gestures (i.e., moving, squeezing, and stroking) was conducted to identify preferred methods for creating haptic messages using a hand-held device. Furthermore, two output methods (i.e., one or four haptic actuators) were investigated in order to determine whether representing spatial properties of input gestures haptically provides additional benefit for communication. Participants created haptic messages in four example communication scenarios. The results of subjective ratings, postexperimental interviews, and observations showed that squeezing and stroking were the preferred ways to interact with the device. Squeezing was an unobtrusive and quick way to create haptic content. Stroking, on the other hand, enabled crafting of more detailed haptic messages. Spatial haptic output was appreciated especially when using the stroking method. These findings can help in designing haptic communication methods for hand-held devices.
Haptic interfaces, Actuators, Sensors, Resonant frequency, Mobile communication, Vibration measurement, Shape analysis

J. Rantala et al., "The Role of Gesture Types and Spatial Feedback in Haptic Communication," in IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 295-306, 2011.
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