The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.04 - October-December (2011 vol.4)
pp: 229-241
Hsiang-Yu Chen , Motorola Corporation, Libertyville
Jaeyoung Park , Purdue University, West Lafayette
Steve Dai , Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque
Hong Z. Tan , Purdue University , West Lafayette
As touch based input becomes more popular in mobile devices, there is an increasing need for haptic feedback on key-less input surface. Four experiments were conducted to design and evaluate identifiable emulated key-click signals using a piezoelectric actuator. Experiments I and II assessed the information transmission capacity for the amplitude, frequency, and number of cycles of raised cosine waveforms used to drive the piezo actuators under fixed- and roving-background conditions, respectively. Experiment III estimated the total information transfer for all three parameters. The results were used to reduce the number of stimulus alternatives in the key-click signal set with the goal to achieve perfect identification performance. Experiment IV verified that up to 5 to 6 identifiable key-click signals could be achieved with the experimental setup. The present study outlines an information theoretic approach to conducting identification experiments to guide the design of and to evaluate a perfectly identifiable stimulus set. The methodology can be applied to other applications in need of perceptually identifiable stimulation patterns.
Mobile applications, haptic feedback, key click, human information processing.
Hsiang-Yu Chen, Jaeyoung Park, Steve Dai, Hong Z. Tan, "Design and Evaluation of Identifiable Key-Click Signals for Mobile Devices", IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol.4, no. 4, pp. 229-241, October-December 2011, doi:10.1109/TOH.2011.21
[1] H.-Y. Chen, J. Park, H.Z. Tan, and S. Dai, "Redundant Coding of Simulated Tactile Key Clicks with Audio Signals," Proc. IEEE Haptic Symp., pp. 29-34, 2010.
[2] M. Fukumoto and T. Sugimura, "Active Click: Tactile Feedback for Touch Panels," Proc. Conf. Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '01 ), pp. 121-122, 2001.
[3] A. Chang and C. O'Sullivan, "Audio-Haptic Feedback in Mobile Phones," Proc. Conf. Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '05), pp. 1264-1267, 2005.
[4] E. Hoggan and S. Brewster, "Designing Audio and Tactile Crossmodal Icons for Mobile Devices," Proc. Ninth Int'l Conf. Multimodal Interfaces, pp. 162-169, 2007.
[5] S. Brewster, F. Chohan, and L. Brown, "Tactile Feedback for Mobile Interactions," Proc. SIGCHI Conf. Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 159-162, 2007.
[6] J.C. Lee, P.H. Dietz, D. Leigh, W.S. Yerazunis, and S.E. Hudson, "Haptic Pen: A Tactile Feedback Stylus for Touch Screens," Proc. 17th Ann. ACM Symp. User Interface Software and Technology, pp. 291-294, 2004.
[7] E. Koskinen, T. Kaaresoja, and P. Laitinen, "Feel-Good Touch: Finding the Most Pleasant Tactile Feedback for a Mobile Touch Screen Button," Proc. 10th Int'l Conf. Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI '08), pp. 297-304, 2008.
[8] J. Pasquero, J. Luk, V. Levesque, Q. Wang, V. Hayward, and K.E. MacLean, "Haptically Enabled Handheld Information Display with Distributed Tactile Transducer," IEEE Trans. Multimedia, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 746-753, June 2007.
[9] P. Laitinen, J. Mawnpaa, and N. Center, "Enabling Mobile Haptic Design: Piezoelectric Actuator Technology Properties in Hand Held Devices," Proc. IEEE Int'l Workshop Haptic Audio Visual Environments and their Applications, pp. 40-43, 2006.
[10] T. Kaaresoja, L.M. Brown, and J. Linjama, "Snap-Crackle-Pop: Tactile Feedback for Mobile Touch Screens," Proc. EuroHaptics '06, 2006.
[11] J. Luk, J. Pasquero, S. Little, K. MacLean, V. Levesque, and V. Hayward, "A Role for Haptics in Mobile Interaction: Initial Design Using a Handheld Tactile Display Prototype," Proc. ACM Conf. Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '06), pp. 171-180, 2006.
[12] I. Poupyrev, S. Maruyama, and J. Rekimoto, "Ambient Touch: Designing Tactile Interfaces for Handheld Devices," Proc. 15th Ann. ACM Symp. User Interface Software and Technology (UIST '02), pp. 51-60, 2002.
[13] I. Poupyrev and S. Maruyama, "Tactile Interfaces for Small Touch Screens," Proc. 16th Ann. ACM Symp. User Interface Software and Technology, pp. 217-220, 2003.
[14] V. Hayward and J.M. Cruz-Hernandez, "Tactile Display Device Using Distributed Lateral Skin Stretch," Proc. Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems Symp., pp. 1309-1314, 2000.
[15] L.M. Brown, S.A. Brewster, and H.C. Purchase, "Multidimensional Tactons for Non-Visual Information Presentation in Mobile Devices," Proc. Eighth Conf. Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services, pp. 231-238, 2006.
[16] K.E. MacLean and M. Enriquez, "Perceptual Design of Haptic Icons," Proc. EuroHaptics '03, pp. 351-362, 2003.
[17] B.W. White, F.A. Saunders, L. Scadden, P. Bach-Y-Rita, and C.C. Collins, "Seeing with the Skin," Perception and Psychophysics, vol. 7, pp. 23-27, 1970.
[18] H.Z. Tan and A. Pentland, "Chapter 18: Tactual Displays for Sensory Substitution and Wearable Computers," Fundamentals of Wearable Computers and Augmented Reality, W. Barfield and T. Caudell, eds., pp. 579-598, CRC Press, 2001.
[19] J.B.F. Erp Van, H.A.H.C. Van Veen, C. Jansen, and T. Dobbins, "Waypoint Navigation with a Vibrotactile Waist Belt," ACM Trans. Applied Perception, vol. 2, pp. 106-117, 2005.
[20] L.A. Jones, B. Lockyer, and E. Piateski, "Tactile Display and Vibrotactile Recognition on the Torso," Advanced Robotics, vol. 20, pp. 1359-1374, 2006.
[21] F.A. Geldard, "Adventures in Tactile Literacy," The Am. Psychologist, vol. 12, pp. 115-124, 1957.
[22] K.E. MacLean, M.J. Enriquez, and T. Lim, "Morphing in Periodic Tactile Signals," World Haptics Conf. '09: Proc. Third Joint EuroHaptics Conf. and Symp. Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, pp. 178-183, 2009.
[23] W.R. Garner, Uncertainty and Structure as Psychological Concepts. Wiley, 1962.
[24] M. Hollins, R. Faldowski, S. Rao, and F. Young, "Perceptual Dimensions of Tactile Surface Texture: A Multidimensional Scaling analysis," Perception and Psychophysics, vol. 54, pp. 697-705, 1993.
[25] M. Zarzo and D.T. Stanton, "Understanding the Underlying Dimensions in Perfumers' Odor Perception Space as a Basis for Developing Meaningful Odor Maps," Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, vol. 71, pp. 225-247, 2009.
[26] J. Pasquero, J. Luk, S. Little, and K. MacLean, "Perceptual Analysis of Haptic Icons: An Investigation into the Validity of Cluster Sorted MDS," Proc. 14th Symp. Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, pp. 437-444, 2006.
[27] N.I. Durlach, H.Z. Tan, N.A. Macmillan, W.M. Rabinowitz, and L.D. Braida, "Resolution in One Dimension with Random Variations in Background Dimensions," Perception and Psychophysics, vol. 46, pp. 293-296, 1989.
[28] H.-Y. Chen, "Information Transfer of Tactile Signals on Mobile Devices," Master of Science, Electrical and Computer Eng., Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, Indiana, 2009.
[29] G.A. Miller, "Note on the Bias of Information Estimates," Information Theory in Psychology, H. Quastler, ed., pp. 95-100, The Free Press, 1954.
[30] H.Z. Tan, "Identification of Sphere Size Using the PHANToM™: Towards a Set of Building Blocks for Rendering Haptic Environment," Proc. Sixth Int'l Symp. Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, vol. 61, pp. 197-203, 1997.
[31] F.G. Ashby and J.T. Townsend, "Varieties of Perceptual Independence," Psychological Rev., vol. 93, pp. 154-179, 1986.
[32] H.Z. Tan, W.M. Rabinowitz, and N.I. Durlach, "Analysis of a Synthetic Tadoma System as a Multidimensional Tactile Display," J. Acoustical Soc. of Am., vol. 86, pp. 981-988, 1989.
[33] H.Z. Tan, C.M. Reed, and N.I. Durlach, "Optimum Information-Transfer Rates for Communication through Haptic and Other Sensory Modalities," IEEE Trans. Haptics, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 98-108, Apr.-June 2010.
[34] W. Wong and S. Mori, "The Magical 'Wave' Seven, Plus or Minus Two?," J. Acoustical Soc. of Am., vol. 104, pp. 390-398, 1998.
15 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool