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Issue No. 03 - July-September (2011 vol. 4)
ISSN: 1939-1412
pp: 199-209
Timothy R. Coles , Bangor University, Bangor and Istituto Italiano di Technologia, Genova
Nigel W. John , Bangor University, Bangor
Derek Gould , Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool
Darwin G. Caldwell , Italiano di Technologia, Genova
This paper presents a virtual environment for training femoral palpation and needle insertion, the opening steps of many interventional radiology procedures. A novel augmented reality simulation called PalpSim has been developed that allows the trainees to feel a virtual patient using their own hands. The palpation step requires both force and tactile feedback. For the palpation haptics effect, two off-the-shelf force feedback devices have been linked together to provide a hybrid device that gives five degrees of force feedback. This is combined with a custom built hydraulic interface to provide a pulse like tactile effect. The needle interface is based on a modified PHANTOM Omni end effector that allows a real interventional radiology needle to be mounted and used during simulation. While using the virtual environment, the haptics hardware is masked from view using chroma-key techniques. The trainee sees a computer generated patient and needle, and interacts using their own hands. This simulation provides a high level of face validity and is one of the first medical simulation devices to integrate haptics with augmented reality.
Needles, Solid modeling, Training, Force feedback, Visualization, Face

T. R. Coles, N. W. John, D. Gould and D. G. Caldwell, "Integrating Haptics with Augmented Reality in a Femoral Palpation and Needle Insertion Training Simulation," in IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 199-209, 2011.
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