Issue No. 01 - January-March (2011 vol. 4)
DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TOH.2010.5
We present a physics-based training simulator for bone machining. Based on experimental studies, the energy required to remove a unit volume of bone is a constant for every particular bone material. We use this physical principle to obtain the forces required to remove bone material with a milling tool rotating at high speed. The rotating blades of the tool are modeled as a set of small cutting elements. The force of interaction between a cutting element and bone is calculated from the energy required to remove a bone chip with an estimated thickness and known material stiffness. The total force acting on the cutter at a particular instant is obtained by integrating the differential forces over all cutting elements engaged. A voxel representation is used to represent the virtual bone and removed chips for calculating forces of machining. We use voxels that carry bone material properties to represent the volumetric haptic body and to apply underlying physical changes during machining. Experimental results of machining samples of a real bone confirm the force model. A real-time haptic implementation of the method in a dental training simulator is described.
Haptic interfaces, Bones, Machining, Blades, Surgery, Deformable models, Milling, Mechanical engineering, Friction, Dentistry
"Physics-Based Haptic Simulation of Bone Machining", IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol. 4, no. , pp. 39-50, January-March 2011, doi:10.1109/TOH.2010.5