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Issue No. 04 - October-December (2010 vol. 3)
ISSN: 1939-1412
pp: 245-256
Teemu Ahmaniemi , Nokia Research Center, Helsinki, Finland
Juha Marila , Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, Finland
Vuokko Lantz , Nokia Research Center, Helsinki, Finland
This paper describes a method for creating virtual textures without force feedback by using a simple motion sensor and a single vibrotactile actuator. It is based on wavetable synthesis driven by the user's hand movements. The output of the synthesis is rendered with the tactile actuator attached in a hand-held box together with the motion sensor. The method provides a solution for creating tangible properties for virtual objects which can be explored by pointing at them with the sensor-actuator device. The study introduces 12 virtual textures which were based on three different envelope ridge lengths, two spatial densities, and were either regularly or irregularly organized. To evaluate the role of each design parameter in the perception of the texture, a series of experiments was conducted. The perceived similarity was assessed in a pairwise comparison test and the outcome was analyzed by using multidimensional scaling. The analysis revealed that envelope ridge length and spatial density were distinguishable design parameters while regularity was not. The textures were also rated according to five attribute scales previously determined in the pilot experiment. The results show that ridge length and spatial density influence perceived roughness and flatness similarly as with real textures.
Virtual textures, tactile interaction, haptic I/O, virtual reality, tactile perception, multidimensional scaling.

T. Ahmaniemi, V. Lantz and J. Marila, "Design of Dynamic Vibrotactile Textures," in IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol. 3, no. , pp. 245-256, 2010.
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