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Issue No. 01 - January-March (2009 vol. 2)
ISSN: 1939-1412
pp: 28-39
Jussi Rantala , University of Tampere, Finland
Jani Lylykangas , University of Tampere, Finland
Roope Raisamo , University of Tampere, Finland
Toni Pakkanen , University of Tampere, Finland
Jukka Raisamo , University of Tampere, Finland
Arto Hippula , University of Tampere, Finland
Katri Salminen , University of Tampere, Finland
Veikko Surakka , University of Tampere, Finland
ABSTRACT
Three novel interaction methods were designed for reading six-dot Braille characters from the touchscreen of a mobile device. A prototype device with a piezoelectric actuator embedded under the touchscreen was used to create tactile feedback. The three interaction methods, scan, sweep, and rhythm, enabled users to read Braille characters one at a time either by exploring the characters dot by dot or by sensing a rhythmic pattern presented on the screen. The methods were tested with five blind Braille readers as a proof of concept. The results of the first experiment showed that all three methods can be used to convey information as the participants could accurately (91—97%) recognize individual characters. In the second experiment the presentation rate of the most efficient and preferred method, the rhythm, was varied. A mean recognition accuracy of 70% was found when the speed of presenting a single character was nearly doubled from the first experiment. The results showed that temporal tactile feedback and Braille coding can be used to transmit single-character information while further studies are still needed to evaluate the presentation of serial information, i.e., multiple Braille characters.
INDEX TERMS
Human-computer interaction, Integrating touch-based interactions into various domains Assistive technology, Tactile display, Hardware and software that enable touch-based interactions with real, remote, and virtual enviro, Haptic I/O, Interaction styles, Tactile devices
CITATION
Jussi Rantala, Jani Lylykangas, Roope Raisamo, Toni Pakkanen, Jukka Raisamo, Arto Hippula, Katri Salminen, Veikko Surakka, "Methods for Presenting Braille Characters on a Mobile Device with a Touchscreen and Tactile Feedback", IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol. 2, no. , pp. 28-39, January-March 2009, doi:10.1109/TOH.2009.3
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