Issue No. 04 - April (2013 vol. 19)
DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TVCG.2013.31
Pie menus are a well-known technique for interacting with 2D environments and so far a large body of research documents their usage and optimizations. Yet, comparatively little research has been done on the usability of pie menus in immersive virtual environments (IVEs). In this paper we reduce this gap by presenting an implementation and evaluation of an extended hierarchical pie menu system for IVEs that can be operated with a six-degrees-of-freedom input device. Following an iterative development process, we first developed and evaluated a basic hierarchical pie menu system. To better understand how pie menus should be operated in IVEs, we tested this system in a pilot user study with 24 participants and focus on item selection. Regarding the results of the study, the system was tweaked and elements like check boxes, sliders, and color map editors were added to provide extended functionality. An expert review with five experts was performed with the extended pie menus being integrated into an existing VR application to identify potential design issues. Overall results indicated high performance and efficient design.
Layout, Usability, Error analysis, Context, Performance evaluation, Atmospheric measurements, Particle measurements
S. Gebhardt, S. Pick, F. Leithold, B. Hentschel and T. Kuhlen, "Extended Pie Menus for Immersive Virtual Environments," in IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 644-651, 2013.