The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.04 - April (2013 vol.19)
pp: 634-643
E. Hodgson , Smale Interactive Visualization Center, Miami Univ., Miami, OH, USA
E. Bachmann , Comput. Sci. & Software Eng., Miami Univ., Miami, OH, USA
Redirected walking algorithms imperceptibly rotate a virtual scene and scale movements to guide users of immersive virtual environment systems away from tracking area boundaries. These distortions ideally permit users to explore large and potentially unbounded virtual worlds while walking naturally through a physically limited space. Estimates of the physical space required to perform effective redirected walking have been based largely on the ability of humans to perceive the distortions introduced by redirected walking and have not examined the impact the overall steering strategy used. This work compares four generalized redirected walking algorithms, including Steer-to-Center, Steer-to-Orbit, Steer-to-Multiple-Targets and Steer-to-Multiple+Center. Two experiments are presented based on simulated navigation as well as live-user navigation carried out in a large immersive virtual environment facility. Simulations were conducted with both synthetic paths and previously-logged user data. Primary comparison metrics include mean and maximum distances from the tracking area center for each algorithm, number of wall contacts, and mean rates of redirection. Results indicated that Steer-to-Center out-performed all other algorithms relative to these metrics. Steer-to-Orbit also performed well in some circumstances.
Legged locomotion, Orbits, Navigation, Algorithm design and analysis, Space vehicles, Visualization, Tracking,simulation., Redirected walking, virtual environments, navigation, human computer interaction, live users
E. Hodgson, E. Bachmann, "Comparing Four Approaches to Generalized Redirected Walking: Simulation and Live User Data", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.19, no. 4, pp. 634-643, April 2013, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2013.28
[1] M. Slater and S. Wilbur, “Through the looking glass world of presence: A framework for immersive virtual enviornments.,” in FIVE '95 Framework for Immersive Virtual Environments., M. Slater, Ed., QMW University of London, 1995.
[2] R. L. Klatzky, J. M. Loomis, A. C. Beall, S. S. Chance, and R. G. Golledge, “Updating an egocentric representation during real, imagined, and virtual locomotion.,” Psychological Science, vol. 9, pp. 293-298, 1998.
[3] S. Razzaque, D. Swapp, M. Slater, M. C. Whitton, and A. Steed, “Redirected walking in place.,” in Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop on Virutal Environments., 2002.
[4] R. P. Darken, W. R. Cockayne, and D. Carmein, “The omni-directional treadmill: A locomotion device for virtual worlds.,” in Proceedings of ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, 1997.
[5] J. M. Hollerbach, “Locomotion interfaces,” in Handbook of Virtual Environments: Design, Implementation, and Applications, NJ, Erlbaum, 2002, pp. 239-254.
[6] S. Razzaque, “Redirected walking,” doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, dissertationsrazzaque.pdf, 2005.
[7] S. Razzaque, Z. Kohn, and M. C. Whitton, “Redirected walking,” in Proceedings of Eurographics 2001, 2001.
[8] J. L. Souman, I. Frissen, M. N. Sreenivasa, and M. O. Earnst, “Walking straight into circles,” Current Biology, vol. 19, pp. 1538-1542, 2009.
[9] V. Interrante, B. Ries,, and L. Anderson;, “Seven League Boots: A New Metaphor for Augmented Locomotion through Moderately Large Scale Immersive Virtual Environments,” IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces, 2007. 3DUI '07., 10-11 March 2007.
[10] F. Steinicke, G. Bruder, J. Jerald, H. Frenz, and M. Lappe, “Analyses of human sensitivity to redirected walking,” in 15th ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, New York, 2008.
[11] F. Steinicke, G. Bruder, J. Jerald, H. Frenz, and M. Lappe, “Real walking through virtual enviornments by redirection techniques,” Journal of Virtual Reality and Broadcasting, vol. 6, p. no. 2, 2009.
[12] F. Steinicke, G. Bruder, J. Jerald, H. Frenz, and M. Lappe, “Estimation of detection thresholds for redirected walking techniques,” IEEE: Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 16, pp. 17-27, 2010.
[13] T. Field and P. Vamplew, “Generalised algorithms for redirected walking in virtual environments,” in AISAT2004: International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Science and Technology, Hobart, Tasmania, 2004.
[14] E. A. Suma, D. Krum, S. Finkelstein, and M. Bolas., “Effects of Redirection on Spatial Orientation in Real and Virtual Environments,” IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces, 2011, pp. 35-38, 2011.
[15] E. Hodgson, E. Bachmann, and D. Waller, “Steering immersed users of virtual environments: Assessing the potential for spatial interference,” ACM: Transactions on Applied Perception, vol. 8, pp. 1-22, 2011.
[16] C. T. Neth, J. L. Souman, D. Engel, U. Kloos, H. H. Bulthoff, and B. J. Mohler, “Velocity-dependent dynamic curvature gain for redirected walking,” IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 18(7), pp. 1041-1052, 2012.
[17] D. Waller, E. Bachmann, E. Hodgson, and A. C. Beall,“The HIVE: A huge immersive virtual environment for research in spatial cognition.,” Behavior Research Methods, vol. 39, pp. 835-843, 2007.
[18] D. Engel, C. Curio, L. Tcheang, B. Mohler, and H. H. Bulthoff, “A psychophysically calibrated controller for navigating through large environments in a limited free-walking space,” in VRST, Bordeaux, France, 2008.
[19] D. Cousineau, “Confidence intervals in within-subject designs: A simpler solution to Loftus and Masson's method,” Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, vol. 1, pp. 42-45, 2007.
[20] B. Williams, G. Narasimham, B. Rump, T. P. McNamara, T. H. Carr, J. Rieser, and B. Bodenheimer:, “Exploring large virtual enviornments using scaled translational gain,” in APGV 2007, Tübingen, Germany, 2007.
43 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool