The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.12 - Dec. (2012 vol.18)
pp: 2799-2808
J. Ma , Exploratorium, San Francisco, CA, USA
I. Liao , Univ. of California, Davis, CA, USA
Kwan-Liu Ma , Univ. of California, Davis, CA, USA
J. Frazier , Exploratorium, San Francisco, CA, USA
Interactive visualizations can allow science museum visitors to explore new worlds by seeing and interacting with scientific data. However, designing interactive visualizations for informal learning environments, such as museums, presents several challenges. First, visualizations must engage visitors on a personal level. Second, visitors often lack the background to interpret visualizations of scientific data. Third, visitors have very limited time at individual exhibits in museums. This paper examines these design considerations through the iterative development and evaluation of an interactive exhibit as a visualization tool that gives museumgoers access to scientific data generated and used by researchers. The exhibit prototype, Living Liquid, encourages visitors to ask and answer their own questions while exploring the time-varying global distribution of simulated marine microbes using a touchscreen interface. Iterative development proceeded through three rounds of formative evaluations using think-aloud protocols and interviews, each round informing a key visualization design decision: (1) what to visualize to initiate inquiry, (2) how to link data at the microscopic scale to global patterns, and (3) how to include additional data that allows visitors to pursue their own questions. Data from visitor evaluations suggests that, when designing visualizations for public audiences, one should (1) avoid distracting visitors from data that they should explore, (2) incorporate background information into the visualization, (3) favor understandability over scientific accuracy, and (4) layer data accessibility to structure inquiry. Lessons learned from this case study add to our growing understanding of how to use visualizations to actively engage learners with scientific data.
touch sensitive screens, data visualisation, interactive systems, museums, natural sciences computing, think-aloud protocols, exploratory visualization tool, interactive visualizations, science museum visitors, informal learning environments, iterative development, Living Liquid, time-varying global distribution, simulated marine microbes, touchscreen interface, Data visualization, Learning systems, Performance evaluation, Motion pictures, Prototypes, Information analysis, Image color analysis, informal learning environments, Information visualization, user interaction, evaluation, user studies, science museums
J. Ma, I. Liao, Kwan-Liu Ma, J. Frazier, "Living Liquid: Design and Evaluation of an Exploratory Visualization Tool for Museum Visitors", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.18, no. 12, pp. 2799-2808, Dec. 2012, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2012.244
[1] F. Azam and F. Malfatti, Microbial structuring of marine ecosystems Nature reviews. Microbiology, 5(10): 782-91, Oct. 2007.
[2] F. Azam and A. Z. Worden., Oceanography. Microbes, molecules, and marine ecosystems Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5664): 1622-4, Mar. 2004.
[3] C. Bowler,D. M. Karl,, and R. R. Colwell., Microbial oceanography in a sea of opportunity. Nature, 459(7244): 180-4, May 2009.
[4] K. R. Butcher., Learning from text with diagrams: Promoting mental model development and inference generation Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1): 182-197, 2006.
[5] S. Card., Readings in information visualization: using vision to think. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco Calif., 1999.
[6] T. de, Jong. Instruction based on computer simulations. In R. E. Mayer, editor, , Handbook of Research on Learning and Instruction, pages 446-466. Routledge, New York, NY, 2011.
[7] E. F. DeLong., The microbial ocean from genomes to biomes Nature, 459(7244): 200-206, May 2009.
[8] D. C. Edelson and D. Gordin., Visualization for learners: a framework for adapting scientists’ tools Computers & Geosciences, 24(7): 607-616, Aug. 1998.
[9] D. C. Edelson,D. N. Gordin,, and R. D. Pea., Addressing the Challenges of Inquiry-Based Learning through Technology and Curriculum Design The Journal of the Learning Sciences. 8: 391-450. 1999.
[10] J. Falk., Learning from museums: visitor experiences and the making of meaning. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek CA, 2000.
[11] M. Follows and S. Dutkiewicz, Modeling Diverse Communities of Marine Microbes Annual Review of Marine Science, 3: 427-451, 2011.
[12] S. Giovannoni and U. Stingl, The importance of culturing bacterioplank-ton in the ‘omics’ age Nature Reviews Microbiology, 5(10): 820-826, 2007.
[13] N. Gravelyn. EasyConfig. http:/easyconfig.codeplex.coml.
[14] J. Griffin., School-museum integrated learning experiences in science: a learning journey. University of Technology, Sydney, 2100254, Sydney, 1998.
[15] L. Gross, Untapped Bounty: Sampling the Seas to Survey Microbial Biodiversity PLoS Biol, 5(3): e85 EP -, 2007.
[16] J. P. Gutwill., Challenging a Common Assumption of Hands-on Exhibits How Counterintuitive Phenomena Can Undermine Inquiry Journal of Museum Education, 33(2): 187-198, 2008.
[17] M. Harrower, An Online Tool for Selecting Colour Schemes for Maps The Cartographic Journal., 40(1), 2003.
[18] G. E, Hein Traits of Life: A Collection of Life Science Exhibits. Exploratorium, traitsSumm_wb_01.pdf, San Francisco, 2003.
[19] U. Hinrichs and S. Carpendale., Interactive Tables in the Wild Visitor Experiences with Multi-Touch Tables in the Arctic Exhibit at the Vancouver Aquarium. University of Calgary, Canada, 2011.
[20] U. Hinrichs, H. Schmidt, and S. Carpendale, EMDialog: bringing information visualization into the museum IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics, 14(6): 1181-8, Jan. 2008.
[21] E. Hornecker., I don't understand it either, but it is cool - visitor interactions with a multi-touch table in a museum. In 2008 3rd IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human Computer Systems, pages 113-120. IEEE, Oct. 2008.
[22] J. Hullman, E. Adar, and P. Shah, Benefitting InfoVis with Visual Difficulties IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 17(12): 2213-2222, 2011.
[23] T. Humphrey and J. Gutwill., Fostering Active Prolonged Engagement: The Art of Creating APE Exhibits. Left Coast Press, Inc., 2005.
[24] Y. Kali, CILT2000: Visualization and Modeling Journal of Science Education and Technology, 11(3): 305-310, 2002.
[25] M. Kaltenbrunner, T. Bovermann, R. Bencina,, and E. Costanza., TUIO - A Protocol for Table Based Tangible User Interfaces. In Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Gesture in Human-Computer Interaction and Simulation (GW 2005), Vannes, France, 2005.
[26] J. F. Kasting and J. L. Siefert., Life and the Evolution of Earth's Atmo-sphere Science, 296(5570): 1066-1068, 2002.
[27] R. Kozma, The material features of multiple representations and their cognitive and social affordances for science understanding Learning and Instruction, 13(2): 205-226, 2003.
[28] A. M, Kraemer Science On a Sphere Ocean-Atmosphere Literacy Partnership Summative Evaluation. Institute for Learning Innovation, Ocean_Atm_Lit_Summ_Report.pdf, Edgewater, MD, 2010.
[29] J. Ma., Visitors’ Prior Knowledge and Interests in Marine Microbes and Metagenomics. Exploratorium,, San Francisco, CA, 2011.
[30] J. Ma., Visitors Interpretations of Images of the Nanoscale. Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network, afm_rp_03.pdf, San Francisco, CA, 2008.
[31] R. D. Pea., The collaborative visualization project Commun. ACM, 36(5): 60-63, 1993.
[32] National Research Council. Learning Science in Informal Environments: People, Places, and Pursuits. National Research Council, Washington, DC, 2009.
[33] National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Science On a Sphere.
[34] B. D. Menemenlis, J.-m. Campin, P. Heimbach., C. Hill, and T. Lee., ECC02 : High Resolution Global Ocean and Sea Ice Data Synthesis Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter, 31(October): 13-21, 2008.
[35] J. McDonald., 2D XNA Primitive Shapes Library.
[36] S. Reynolds, J. Johnson, M. Pibum., D. Leedy, J. Coyan,, and M. Busch., Visualization in Undergraduate Geology Courses. In J. Gilbert, editor, Visualization in Science Education, 1, pages 253-266., Springer, Netherlands, 2005.
[37] M. Resnick, Beyond the Centralized Mindset Journal of the Learning Sciences, 5(1): 1-22, 1996.
[38] Rain Table Development Team. Rain Table. .
[39] D. E. Penner., Explaining Systems: Investigating middle school students’ understanding of emergent phenomena Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37(8): 784-806, 2000.
[40] K. Takayama., Visualizing the Science of Genomics. In J. Gilbert, editor, Visualization in Science Education, pages 217-251., Springer, Netherlands, 1 edition, 2005.
[41] M. Shanahan., Evaluation of the Bishop Museum's Science on a Sphere. Bishop Museum, Bishop_PREL_Evaluation.doc, Honolulu, HI, 2007.
[42] B. Serrell., Paying Attention: Visitors & Museum Exhibitions. American Association of Museums, Washington D.C., 1998.
[43] The Darwin Project. The Darwin Project Media Library. 27.
[44] U.S. Department, of Energy Office of Science. Genomics: GTL roadmap: Systems biology for energy and environment (DOEISC-0090). Genome Management Information System, GTL05_05frontmatter.pdf, Germantown, MD, 2005.
[45] F. Viégas, E. Perry, E. Howe,, and J. Donath., Artifacts of the Presence Era: Using Information Visualization to Create an Evocative Souvenir. In IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, pages 105-111. IEEE.
41 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool