The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.12 - Dec. (2012 vol.18)
pp: 2759-2768
R. Borgo , Comput. Sci., Swansea Univ., Swansea, UK
A. Abdul-Rahman , Oxford e-Res. Centre, Univ. of Oxford, Oxford, UK
F. Mohamed , Univ. Teknol. Malaysia, Skudai, Malaysia
P. W. Grant , Comput. Sci., Swansea Univ., Swansea, UK
I. Reppa , Psychol. Dept., Swansea Univ., Swansea, UK
L. Floridi , St. Cross Coll., Univ. of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Min Chen , Oxford e-Res. Centre, Univ. of Oxford, Oxford, UK
In written and spoken communications, figures of speech (e.g., metaphors and synecdoche) are often used as an aid to help convey abstract or less tangible concepts. However, the benefits of using rhetorical illustrations or embellishments in visualization have so far been inconclusive. In this work, we report an empirical study to evaluate hypotheses that visual embellishments may aid memorization, visual search and concept comprehension. One major departure from related experiments in the literature is that we make use of a dual-task methodology in our experiment. This design offers an abstraction of typical situations where viewers do not have their full attention focused on visualization (e.g., in meetings and lectures). The secondary task introduces “divided attention”, and makes the effects of visual embellishments more observable. In addition, it also serves as additional masking in memory-based trials. The results of this study show that visual embellishments can help participants better remember the information depicted in visualization. On the other hand, visual embellishments can have a negative impact on the speed of visual search. The results show a complex pattern as to the benefits of visual embellishments in helping participants grasp key concepts from visualization.
data visualisation, memory-based trials, visual embellishments, visualization, speech figure, rhetorical illustrations, memorization, visual search, concept comprehension, dual-task methodology, divided attention, Visualization, Data visualization, Complexity theory, Speech, Grasping, Memory management, Humans, evaluation, Visual embellishments, metaphors, icons, cognition, working memory, long-term memory, visual search
R. Borgo, A. Abdul-Rahman, F. Mohamed, P. W. Grant, I. Reppa, L. Floridi, Min Chen, "An Empirical Study on Using Visual Embellishments in Visualization", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.18, no. 12, pp. 2759-2768, Dec. 2012, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2012.197
[1] E. Aley., Metaphorical Visualization: Using Multidimensional Metaphors to Visualize Data. VDM Verlag, 2007.
[2] V. L. Averbukh., Visualization metaphors. Programming and Computer Software, 27(5): 227-237, Sep. 2001.
[3] A. D. Baddeley., Short-term memory for word sequences as a function of acoustic, semantic and formal similarity. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18(4): 362-365, 1966.
[4] S. Bateman,R. L. Mandryk,C. Gutwin,A. Genest,D. McDine,, and C. Brooks., Useful junk?: the effects of visual embellishment on comprehension and memorability of charts. In Proc. International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 10), pages 25732582. ACM, 2010.
[5] A. Blackwell., Visual Representation. The Foundation, Aarhus, Denmark, 2011.
[6] A. F. Blackwell and T. R. G. Green., Does metaphor increase visual language usability? In Proc. IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages (VL 99), pages 246-254, 1999.
[7] M. Chen and H. Jänicke., An information-theoretic framework for visualization. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 16(6): 1206-1215, 2010.
[8] W. D. Chiles., Workload, task and situational factors as modifiers of complex human performance. In E. A. Alluisi, and E. A. Fleishman, editors, , Human Performance and Productivity, pages 1152. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1982.
[9] S. Few., Now You See It: Simple Visualization Techniques for Quantitative Analysis. Analytics Press, 2009.
[10] M. Glanzer and A. R. Cunitz., Two storage mechanisms in free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 5(4): 351-360, 1966.
[11] C. Healey., Choosing effective colours for data visualization. In Proc. IEEE Visualization, pages 263-270, 1996.
[12] D. A. Henderson Jr. and S. K. Card., Rooms: The use of multiple workspaces to reduce space contention in a window-based graphical user interface. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 5(3): 211-243, 1986.
[13] W. H. Huggins and D. R. Entwisle., Iconic Communication; An Annotated Bibliography. Johns Hopkins University Press Baltimore, 1974.
[14] J. Hullman,E. Adar,, and P. Shah., Benefitting infovis with visual difficulties. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 17(12): 2213-2222, 2011.
[15] W. B. Knowles., Operator loading tasks. The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 5: 155161, Apr. 1963.
[16] G. Lakoff., The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor, volume 2, pages 202251. Cambridge University Press, 1993.
[17] S. J. Luck and E. K. Vogel., The capacity of visual working memory for features and conjunction s. Nature, 390(6657): 279-281, 1997.
[18] A. Mack,Z. Pappas,M. Silverman,, and R. Gay., What we see: Inattention and the capture of attention by meaning. Consciousness and Cognition, 11(4): 488-506, Dec. 2002.
[19] R. Mander,G. Solomon,, and Y. Y. Wong., A pile metaphor for supporting casual organization of information. In Proc. International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 92), pages 627-634, 1992.
[20] S. McDougall and M. Curry., More than just a picture: Icon interpretation in context. In Proc. Coping with Complexity Workshop, pages 16-17, 2004.
[21] G. A. Miller., The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 101(2): 343-52, 1956.
[22] C. J. Morris,D. S. Ebert,, and P. Rheingans., An experimental analysis of the pre-attentiveness of features in Chernoff faces. In Proc. SPIE Applied Imagery Pattern Recognition: 3D Visualization for Data Exploration and Decision Making, pages 12-17. 1999.
[23] G. L. Murphy., On metaphoric representation. Cognition, 60: 173204, 1996.
[24] A. Ortony., Why metaphors are necessary and not just nice. Education Theory, 25: 4553, 1975.
[25] A. Pang and M. Clifton., Metaphors for visualization. In Proc. Eurographics Workshop on Visualization in Scientific Computing, 1995.
[26] H. E. Pashler., Attention. Psychology Press, 1998.
[27] C. Peirce., The New Elements of Mathematics. 1902.
[28] L. R. Peterson and M. J. Peterson., Short-term retention of individual verbal items. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58(3): 193-198, 1959.
[29] I. Reppa,D. Playfoot,, and S. J. P., McDougall. Visual aesthetic appeal speeds processing of complex but not simple icons. Proc. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, pages 1155-1159, 2008.
[30] M. S. Sanders and E. J. McCormick., Human Factors in Engineering and Design. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 6th edition, 1987.
[31] C. E. Shannon., A mathematical theory of communication. ACM SIGMO-BILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review, 5(1): 3-55, Jan. 2001.
[32] H. S. Smallman,M. S. John,H. M. Oonk,, and M. B. Cowen., Information availability in 2D and 3D displays. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 21(5): 51-57, 2001.
[33] T. G. Sticht., Educational uses of metaphor. In A. Ortony,, editor, Metaphor and Thought, pages 621632. Cambridge University Press, 1993.
[34] A. Treisman., Properties, parts, and objects. In K. R. Boff,L. Kaufman,, and J. P. Thomas, editors, , Handbook of Perception and Human Performance, volume II, page 35:135:70. Wiley, 1986.
[35] E. Tufte., The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Graphics Press, 2001.
[36] C. Ware., Information Visualization: Perception for Design. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, second edition, 2004.
[37] J. M. Wolfe., Guided search 2.0 - a revised model of visual-search. Psy-chonomic Bulletin & Review, 1(2): 202-238, 1994.
[38] M. K. Yousef., Assessment of metaphor efficacy in user interfaces for the elderly: A tentative model for enhancing accessibility. In In Proc. EC/NSF Workshop on Universal Accessibility of Ubiquitous Computing, pages 120-124, 2001.
[39] C. Ziemkiewicz and R. Kosara., The shaping of information by visual metaphors. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 14(6): 1269-1276, 2008.
[40] C. Ziemkiewicz and R. Kosara., Preconceptions and individual differences in understanding visual metaphors. Computer Graphics Forum, 28(3): 911-918, 2009.
24 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool