The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.12 - Dec. (2012 vol.18)
pp: 2749-2758
Jo Wood , giCentre, City University London
Petra Isenberg , INRIA, Paris
Tobias Isenberg , University of Groningen, Netherlands
Jason Dykes , giCentre, City University London
Nadia Boukhelifa , INRIA, Paris
Aidan Slingsby , giCentre, City University London
We present and evaluate a framework for constructing sketchy style information visualizations that mimic data graphics drawn by hand. We provide an alternative renderer for the Processing graphics environment that redefines core drawing primitives including line, polygon and ellipse rendering. These primitives allow higher-level graphical features such as bar charts, line charts, treemaps and node-link diagrams to be drawn in a sketchy style with a specified degree of sketchiness. The framework is designed to be easily integrated into existing visualization implementations with minimal programming modification or design effort. We show examples of use for statistical graphics, conveying spatial imprecision and for enhancing aesthetic and narrative qualities of visualization. We evaluate user perception of sketchiness of areal features through a series of stimulus-response tests in order to assess users’ ability to place sketchiness on a ratio scale, and to estimate area. Results suggest relative area judgment is compromised by sketchy rendering and that its influence is dependent on the shape being rendered. They show that degree of sketchiness may be judged on an ordinal scale but that its judgement varies strongly between individuals. We evaluate higher-level impacts of sketchiness through user testing of scenarios that encourage user engagement with data visualization and willingness to critique visualization design. Results suggest that where a visualization is clearly sketchy, engagement may be increased and that attitudes to participating in visualization annotation are more positive. The results of our work have implications for effective information visualization design that go beyond the traditional role of sketching as a tool for prototyping or its use for an indication of general uncertainty.
Data visualization, Shape analysis, Rendering (computer graphics), visualization, NPR, non-photorealistic rendering, sketch, hand-drawn, uncertainty
Jo Wood, Petra Isenberg, Tobias Isenberg, Jason Dykes, Nadia Boukhelifa, Aidan Slingsby, "Sketchy Rendering for Information Visualization", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.18, no. 12, pp. 2749-2758, Dec. 2012, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2012.262
[1] Z. AlMeraj, B. Wyvill, T. Isenberg,A. A. Gooch,, and R. Guy., Automatically mimicking unique hand-drawn pencil lines. Computers & Graphics, 33(4): 496-508, 2009. doi> 10.1016/j.cag.2009.04.004
[2] J. Bertin., Semiology of Graphics: Diagrams, Networks, Maps. ESRI Press, Redlands, California, 2010.
[3] N. Boukhelifa, A. Bezerianos, T. Isenberg,, and J.-D. Fekete., Evaluating sketchiness as a visual variable for the depiction of qualitative uncertainty. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 18(12), 2012. This issue.
[4] J. Browne, B. Lee, S. Carpendale., N. Riche, and T. Sherwood., Data analysis on interactive whiteboards through sketch-based interaction. In Proceedings, Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces, pp. 154-157. ACM, New York, 2011. doi> 10.1145/2076354.2076383
[5] S. Carpendale., Considering visual variables as a basis for information visualisation. Technical Report #2001–693-16, University of Calgary, Department of Computer Science, 2003. doi> 1880/45758
[6] W. Cleveland and R. McGill, Graphical perception: Theory, experimen-tation, and application to the development of graphical methods Journal of the American Statistical Association, 79(387): 531-554, 1984. doi> 10. 1080/01621459.1984.10478080
[7] F. Cole, A. Golovinskiy, A. Limpaecher,H. S. Barros, A. Finkelstein, T. Funkhouser,, and S. Rusinkiewicz., Where do people draw lines? ACM Transactions on Graphics, 27(3): 88:1-88:11, 2008. doi> 10.11451 1360612.1360687
[8] C. Curtis., Loose and sketchy animation. In SIGGRAPH Technical Sketches, p. 317. ACM, New York, 1998. doi> 10.1145/281388.281913
[9] D. J. Duke,P. J. Barnard, N. Halper, and M. Mellin., Rendering and affect Computer Graphics Forum, 22(3): 359-368, 2003. doi> 10.1111/1467–8659.00683
[10] A. Finkelstein and D. H. Salesin., Multiresolution curves. In Proceedings, SIGGRAPH, pp. 261-268. ACM, New York, 1994. doi> 10.1145/192161.192223
[11] B. Gooch and A. A, Gooch Non-Photorealistic Rendering. A K Peters, Ltd., Natick, 2001.
[12] B. Gooch, E. Reinhard, and A. Gooch, Human facial illustrations: Creation and psychophysical evaluation ACM Transactions on Graphics, 23(1): 27-44, 2004. doi> 10.1145/966131.966133
[13] N. G. Gradwohl., Simulation of hand drawn lines in processing. Blog entry: simulation-of-hand-drawn-lines-in-processing, 2010.
[14] S. Greenberg, S. Carpendale, N. Marquardt,, and B. Buxton., Sketching User Experiences: The Workbook. Morgan Kaufmann, 2012.
[15] M. D. Gross., Visual languages and visual thinking: Sketch based interaction and modeling. In Proceedings, Symposium on Sketch-Based Interfaces and Modeling, pp. 7-11. ACM, New York, 2009. doi> 10.1145/1572741.1572743
[16] N. Halper, M. Mellin, C. Herrmann., V. Linneweber, and T. Strothotte., Psychology and non-photorealistic rendering: The beginning of a beautiful relationship. In Mensch & Computer 2003: Interaktion in Bewegung, pp. 277-286. Teubner Verlag, Stuttgart, 2003.
[17] C. G. Healey and J. T. Enns., Perception and painting: A search for effective, engaging visualizations IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 22(2): 10-15, 2002. doi> 10.1109/38.988741
[18] C. G. Healey, L. Tateosian, J. T. Enns,, and M. Remple., Perceptually-based brush strokes for nonphotorealistic visualization ACM Transactions on Graphics, 23(1): 64-96, 2004. doi> 10.1145/966131.966135
[19] J. Heer and M. Bostock., Crowdsourcing graphical perception: Using Mechanical Turk to assess visualization design. In Proceedings, CHI, pp. 203-212. ACM, New York, 2010. doi> 10.1145/1753326.1753357
[20] P. Hendrikx., SAP BusinessObjects exploration views. Web page: , 2011.
[21] J. Hullman, E. Adar, and P. Shah, Benefitting InfoVis with visual difficulties IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 17(12): 2213-2222, 2011. doi> 10.1109/TVCG.2011.175
[22] J. Hullman and N. Diakopoulos, Visualization rhetoric: Framing effects in narrative visualization IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 17(12): 2231-2240, 2011. doi> 10.1109/TVCG.2011.255
[23] T. Isenberg., Evaluating and validating non-photorealistic and illustrative rendering. In P. Rosin, and J. Collomosse, editors, , Image and Video based Artistic Stylisation, chapter 15. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 2012. To appear.
[24] T. Isenberg, Visual abstraction and stylisation of maps The Cartographic Journal, 2012. To appear. doi> 10.1179/1743277412Y.0000000007
[25] T. Isenberg, P. Neumann, S. Carpendale,M. C. Sousa,, and J. A. Jorge., Non-photorealistic rendering in context: An observational study. In Proceedings, Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering, pp. 115-126. ACM, New York, 2006. doi> 10.1145/1124728.1124747
[26] N. Kong, J. Heer, and M. Agrawala, Perceptual guidelines for creating rectangular treemaps IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 16(6): 990-998, 2010. doi> 10.1109/TVCG.2010.186
[27] D. Lloyd and J. Dykes, Human-centered approaches in geovisualization design: Investigating multiple methods through a long-term case study IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 17(12): 2498-2507, 2011. doi> 10.1109/TVCG.2011.209
[28] M. Luboschik, A. Radloff, and H. Schumann., Using NPR-rendering techniques for the visualization of uncertainty. In Posters of IEEE InfoVis. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, 2010.
[29] A. MacEachren, A. Robinson, S. Hopper., S. Gardner, R. Murray., M. Gahegan, and E. Hetzler, Visualizing geospatial information uncer-tainty: What we know and what we need to know Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 32(3): 139-160, 2005. doi> 10.1559/1523040054738936
[30] D. Mould,R. L. Mandryk,, and H. Li., Emotional response and visual attention to non-photorealistic images. Computers & Graphics, 36(5), 2012. doi> 10.1016/j.cag.2012.03.039
[31] M. Nienhaus and J. Döllner., Sketchy drawings. In Proc., AFRIGRAPH, pp. 73-81. ACM, New York, 2004. doi> 10.1145/1029949.1029963
[32] M. Nienhaus, F. Kirsch, and J. Döllner., Sketchy illustrations for presenting the design of interactive CSG. In Proceedings, Information Visualization, pp. 772-777. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, 2006. doi> 10.1109/IV.2006.97
[33] D. A, Norman Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things. Basic Books, Cambridge, 2004.
[34] P. Rautek, S. Bruckner, E. Groller,, and I. Viola., Illustrative visualization: New technology or useless tautology? ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics, 42(3): 4:1-4:8, 2008. doi> 10.1145/1408626.1408633
[35] Royal Society for the encouragement of the Arts. RSA animate. Web page:, 2012.
[36] A. Santella and D. DeCarlo., Visual interest and NPR: An evaluation and manifesto. In Proceedings, Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering, pp. 71-150. ACM, New York, 2004. doi> 10.1145/987657.987669
[37] S. Schlechtweg, B. Schonwalder, L. Schumann,, and T. Strothotte., Surfaces to lines: Rendering rich line drawings. In Proceedings, WSCG, 2, pp. 354-361, 1998.
[38] J. Schumann, T. Strothotte, S. Laser,, and A. Raab., Assessing the effect of non-photorealistic rendered images in CAD. In Proceedings, CHI, pp. 35-41. ACM, New York, 1996. doi> 10.1145/238386.238398
[39] T. Strothotte, B. Preim, A. Raab., J. Schumann, and D. R. Forsey., How to render frames and influence people Computer Graphics Forum, 13(3): 455-466, 1994. doi> 10.1111/1467–8659.1330455
[40] T. Strothotte and S. Schlechtweg., Non-Photorealistic Computer Graphics. Modeling, Animation, and Rendering. Morgan Kaufmann, 2002.
[41] C. Tietjen, T. Isenberg, and B. Preim., Combining silhouettes, shading, and volume rendering for surgery education and planning. In Proceedings, EuroVis, pp. 303-310. Eurographics Association, Goslar, Germany, 2005. doi> 10.2312/VisSym/Euro Vis05/303–310
[42] E. Tufte., The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Graphics Press, Cheshire, 1983.
[43] B. Tversky., What do sketches say about thinking? In Proceedings, AAAI Spring Symposium on Sketch Understanding. AAAI Press, Menlo Park, CA, 2002.
[44] C. VanLang., Project 5: Information visualization. Web page: http://chasenvanlang.wordpress.coml2010111/ 04/project-5-information-visualization , 2010.
[45] J. Walny, S. Carpendale, N. Riche., G. Venolia, and P. Fawcett, Visual thinking in action: Visualizations as used on whiteboards IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 17(12): 2508-2517, 2011. doi> 10.1109/TVCG.2011.251
[46] G. A. Winkenbach and D. H. Salesin., Computer-generated pen-and-ink illustration. In Proceedings, SIGGRAPH, pp. 91-100. ACM, New York, 1994. doi> 10.1145/192161.192184
[47] S. Zanola, S. Fabrikant, and A. Çöltekin,The effect of realism on the confidence in spatial data quality in 3D stereoscopic displays. Proceedings, 24th International Cartography Conference, ICC 2009: 15-21, 2009.
30 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool