The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.12 - Dec. (2012 vol.18)
pp: 2575-2582
B. Jenny , Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR, USA
All major web mapping services use the web Mercator projection. This is a poor choice for maps of the entire globe or areas of the size of continents or larger countries because the Mercator projection shows medium and higher latitudes with extreme areal distortion and provides an erroneous impression of distances and relative areas. The web Mercator projection is also not able to show the entire globe, as polar latitudes cannot be mapped. When selecting an alternative projection for information visualization, rivaling factors have to be taken into account, such as map scale, the geographic area shown, the map's height-to-width ratio, and the type of cartographic visualization. It is impossible for a single map projection to meet the requirements for all these factors. The proposed composite map projection combines several projections that are recommended in cartographic literature and seamlessly morphs map space as the user changes map scale or the geographic region displayed. The composite projection adapts the map's geometry to scale, to the map's height-to-width ratio, and to the central latitude of the displayed area by replacing projections and adjusting their parameters. The composite projection shows the entire globe including poles; it portrays continents or larger countries with less distortion (optionally without areal distortion); and it can morph to the web Mercator projection for maps showing small regions.
Web services, cartography, data visualisation, geographic information systems, map geometry, adaptive composite map projections, Web mapping services, Web Mercator projection, areal distortion, erroneous distances impression, information visualization, geographic area, map height-to-width ratio, cartographic visualization, geographic region, Shape analysis, Continents, Mapping, Earth, Decision trees, Interpolation, HTML5 Canvas, Multi-scale map, web mapping, web cartography, web map projection, web Mercator
B. Jenny, "Adaptive Composite Map Projections", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.18, no. 12, pp. 2575-2582, Dec. 2012, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2012.192
[1] S. E. Battersby,“The effect of global-scale map-projection knowledge on perceived land area,” Cartographica: The International Journal for Geographic Information and Geovisualization, 44, 1, pp. 33-44, 2009.
[2] S. E. Battersby and D. R. Montello,“Area estimation of world regions and the projection of the global-scale cognitive map,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 99, 2, pp. 273-291, 2009.
[3] S. W. Boggs,“Cartohypnosis,” The Scientific Monthly, 64, 6, pp. 469-476, 1947.
[4] L. M. Bugayevskiy and J. P. Snyder,Map Projections. A Reference Manual. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis, 1995.
[5] F. Canters,Small-Scale Map Projection Design. CRC Press, 2002, p. 336.
[6] J. J. Chiodo,“Improving the cognitive development of students’ mental maps of the world,” J Geog, 96, 3, pp. 153-163, 1997.
[7] W. De Genst, and F. Canters,“Development and Implementation ofa Procedure for Automated Map Projection Selection,” Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 23, 3, pp. 145-171, Jul. 1996.
[8] C. H. Deetz and O. S. Adams,Elements of map projection with applications to map and chart construction, 4th ed. 1934.
[9] J. Dykes, J. Wood, and A. Slingsby,“Rethinking Map Legends with Visualization,” Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on, 16, 6, pp. 890-899, 2010.
[10] M. P. Finn,E. L. Usery,S. T. Posch,, and J. C. Seong,A Decision Support System for Map Projections of Small Scale Data, vol. 2004.
[11] P. P. Gilmartin,“Aesthetic preferences for the proportions and forms of graticules,” Cartographic Journal, 20, 2, pp. 95-100, 1983.
[12] B. Goussinsky,“On the classification of map projections,” Survey Review, 11, 80, pp. 75-79, 1951.
[13] E. Hammer,“Uber die Planisphäre von Aitow und verwandte Entwiirfe, insbesondere neue flächentreue ahnlichcr Art,” Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen, 38, 4, pp. 85-87, 1892.
[14] J.-H. Haunert and L. Sering,“Drawing Road Networks with Focus Regions,” Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on, 17, 12, pp. 2555-2562, 2011.
[15] P. Jankowski and T. Nyerges,“Design considerations for MaPKBS-map projection knowledge-based system,” Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 16, 2, pp. 85-95, 1989.
[16] Lee,L. P.,“The nomenclature and classification of map projections,” Survey Review, 7, 51, pp. 190-200, 1944.
[17] A. M. MacEachren,How maps work: Issues in representation, visualization and design. New York: Guilford, 1995.
[18] D. H. Maling,Coordinate systems and map projections, 2nd ed. Pergamon Press, 1993.
[19] M. S. Monmonier,Drawing the Line: Tales of Maps and Cartocontroversy. 1995.
[20] M. S. Monmonier,Rhumb Lines and Map Wars: A Social History of the Mercator Projection. University Of Chicago Press, 2004.
[21] T. L. Nyerges and P. Jankowski,“A knowledge base for map projection selection,” Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 16, no. l, pp. 29-38, 1989.
[22] E. Raisz,General Cartography. New York: Hill Book Company, 1938.
[23] A. H. Robinson,“Rectangular world maps no!,“ The Professional Geographer, 42, no. l, pp. 101-104, 1990.
[24] A. H. Robinson,Elements of Cartography, 1st ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1953, p. 254.
[25] T. F. Saarinen, M. Parton, and R. Billberg,“Relative size of continents on world sketch maps,” Cartographica: The International Journal for Geographic Information and Geovisualization, 33, 2, pp. 37-48, 1996.
[26] A. Skupin,“From metaphor to method: cartographic perspectives on information visualization,” Information Visualization, 2000. Info Vis 2000. IEEE Symposium on, pp. 91-97, 2000.
[27] T. A. Slocum,R. B. McMaster,F. C. Kessler,, and H. H. Howard,Thematic Cartography and Geovisualization, 3rd ed. Prentice Hall, 2009, p. 576.
[28] J. P. Snyder,“Social consciousness and world maps,” The Christian Century, 105, pp. 190-192, 1988.
[29] J. P. Snyder,Map Projections - A Working Manual. US Government Printing Office, 1987, p. 383.
[30] J. P. Snyder,Flattening the Earth: Two Thousand Years of Map Projections. University Of Chicago Press, 1993, p. 384.
[31] D. Strebe,“Why Mercator for the Web? Isn't the Mercator bad?,“, 2012. [Online]. Available: http://mapthematics.comlforumsviewtopic.php?f=8&t=251 &p=344#p3 44. [Accessed: 19-Mar.-2012].
[32] B. Šavrič, B. Jenny, T. Patterson., D. Petrovič, and L. Hurni,“A polynomial equation for the Natural Earth projection,” Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 38, 4, pp. 363-372, 2011.
[33] W. R. Tobler,“A classification of map projections,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 52, 2, pp. 167-175, 1962.
[34] J. van, Wijk, “Unfolding the Earth: Myriahedral Projections,” Cartographic Journal, 45, 4, pp. 32-42, 2008.
[35] K. Verbeek, K. Buchin, and B. Speckmann,“Flow Map Layout via Spiral Trees,” Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on, 17, 12, pp. 2536-2544, 2011.
[36] L. Wang, J. Giesen, K. T. McDonnell, P. Zolliker, and K. Mueller,“Color Design for Illustrative Visualization,” Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on, 14, 6, pp. 1739-1754, 2008.
[37] R. J. Werner,“A survey of preference among nine equator-centered map projections,” Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 20, no. l, pp. 31-39, 1993.
[38] M. Wijffelaars, R. Vliegen, J. J. Van Wijk,, and E.-J. Van Der Linden,“Generating Color Palettes using Intuitive Parameters,” Computer Graphics Forum, 27, 3, pp. 743-750, 2008.
20 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool