The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.10 - Oct. (2012 vol.18)
pp: 1704-1716
Qiqi Liao , Zhejiang University, Hangzhou
Xiaogang Jin , Zhejiang University, Hangzhou
Wenting Zeng , Zhejiang University, Hangzhou
We present an engine for enhancing the geometry of a 3D face mesh model while making the enhanced version share close similarity with the original. After obtaining the feature points of a given scanned 3D face model, we first perform a local and global symmetrization on the key facial features. We then apply an overall proportion optimization to the frontal face based on Neoclassical Canons and golden ratios. A nonlinear least-squares solution is adopted to adjust the feature points so that the face profile complies with the aesthetic criteria, which are derived from the profile cosmetology. Through the above processes, we obtain the optimized feature points, which will lead to a more attractive face. According to the original feature points and the optimized ones, we perform Laplacian deformation to adjust the remaining points of the face in order to preserve the geometric details. The analysis of user study in this paper validates the effectiveness of our 3D face geometry enhancement engine.
Face recognition, Three dimensional displays, Geometry, Solid modeling, Facial features, facial geometry., Facial attractiveness, facial symmetrization, facial proportion, facial profile
Qiqi Liao, Xiaogang Jin, Wenting Zeng, "Enhancing the Symmetry and Proportion of 3D Face Geometry", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.18, no. 10, pp. 1704-1716, Oct. 2012, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2012.26
[1] D.I. Perrett, K.J. Lee, I. Penton-Voak, D. Rowland, S. Yoshikawa, D.M. Burt, S.P. Henzi, D.L. Castles, and S. Akamatsu, "Effects of Sexual Dimorphism on Facial Attractiveness," Nature, vol. 394, no. 6696, pp. 884-887, 1998.
[2] A. Slater, C.V. der Schulenburg, E. Brown, M. Badenoch, G. Butterworth, and S. Parsons, "Newborn Infants Prefer Attractive Faces," Infant Behavior and Development, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 345-354, 1998.
[3] D. Perrett, K. May, and S. Yoshikawa, "Facial Shape and Judgements of Female Attractiveness," Nature, vol. 368, no. 6468, pp. 239-242, 1994.
[4] T. Leyvand, D. Cohen-Or, G. Dror, and D. Lischinski, "Data-Driven Enhancement of Facial Attractiveness," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 27, no. 3, p. 38, 2008.
[5] I. Linden Research, "An Example of 3D Communities and Games," http:/, 2011.
[6] I. Linden Research, "An Example of Virtual Shops," , 2011.
[7] P. Eisert and B. Girod, "Analyzing Facial Expressions for Virtual Conferencing," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 70-78, Sept./Oct. 1998.
[8] Y. Xiao, M.H. Garzon, and M. Nolan, "Using Talking Heads for Real-Time Virtual Videophone in Wireless Networks," IEEE MultiMedia, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 78-84, July-Sept. 2006.
[9] B. Guenter, C. Grimm, D. Wood, H. Malvar, and F. Pighin, "Making Faces," Proc. 25th Ann. Conf. Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, pp. 55-66, 1998.
[10] X. Ma, B. Le, and Z. Deng, "Style Learning and Transferring for Facial Animation Editing," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symp. Computer Animation, pp. 123-132, 2009.
[11] W. Zhao, R. Chellappa, P. Phillips, and A. Rosenfeld, "Face Recognition: A Literature Survey," ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 399-458, 2003.
[12] W.S. Tong, C.K. Tang, M.S. Brown, and Y.Q. Xu, "Example-Based Cosmetic Transfer," Proc. 15th Pacific Conf. Computer Graphics and Applications, pp. 211-218, 2007.
[13] D. Guo and T. Sim, "Digital Face Makeup by Example," Proc. Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2009.
[14] V. Blanz, "Manipulation of Facial Attractiveness," /, 2003.
[15] V. Blanz and T. Vetter, "A Morphable Model for the Synthesis of 3D Faces," Proc. 26th Ann. Conf. Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, pp. 187-194, 1999.
[16] V. Blanz, K. Scherbaum, and H.P. Seidel, "Fitting a Morphable Model to 3D Scans of Faces," Proc. IEEE 11th Int'l Conf. Computer Vision (ICCV), pp. 1-8, 2007.
[17] J.S. Kim and S.M. Choi, "Symmetric Deformation of 3D Face Scans Using Facial Features and Curvatures," Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 289-300, 2009.
[18] O. Sorkine, Y. Lipman, D. Cohen-Or, M. Alexa, C. Rössl, and H.-P. Seidel, "Laplacian Surface Editing," Proc. Eurographics/ACM SIGGRAPH Symp. Geometry Processing, pp. 179-188, 2004.
[19] O. Sorkine, "Laplacian Mesh Processing," Proc. Eurographics State-of-the-Art Report, 2005.
[20] K. Schmid, D. Marx, and A. Samal, "Computation of a Face Attractiveness Index Based on Neoclassical Canons, Symmetry, and Golden Ratios," Pattern Recognition, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 2710-2717, 2008.
[21] J. Shi, A. Samal, and D. Marx, "How Effective Are Landmarks and Their Geometry for Face Recognition?" Computer Vision and Image Understanding, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 117-133, 2006.
[22] H.S. Park, S.C. Rhee, S.R. Kang, and J.H. Lee, "Harmonized Profiloplasty Using Balanced Angular Profile Analysis," Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 89-97, 2004.
[23] M. Cvicelova, R. Benus, L. Lysakova, A. Molnarova, and Z. Borovska, "Occurrence of Neoclassical Facial Canons in Caucasian Primary School Pupils and University Students," Bratislavské lekárske listy, vol. 108, nos. 10/11, pp. 480-485, 2007.
[24] D.W. Zaidel, S.M. Aarde, and K. Baig, "Appearance of Symmetry, Beauty, and Health in Human Faces," Brain and Cognition, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 261-263, 2005.
[25] N.J. Mitra, L.J. Guibas, and M. Pauly, "Symmetrization," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 1-8, 2007.
[26] L.G. Farkas, T.A. Hreczko, J.C. Kolar, and I.R. Munro, "Vertical and Horizontal Proportions of the Face in Young Adult North American Caucasians: Revision of Neoclassical Canons," Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 328-338, 1985.
[27] G. Meisner, "The Human Face," http://goldennumber.netface. htm, 2006.
[28] D.L. Narain, "The Perfect Face," activity8.htm, 2003.
[29] H. Peck and S. Peck, "A Concept of Facial Esthetics," Angle Orthodontist, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 284-318, 1970.
[30] S.C. Rhee, "The Average Korean Attractive Face," Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 729-730, 2006.
[31] J.-Y. Noh and U. Neumann, "Expression Cloning," Proc. 28th Ann. Conf. Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, pp. 277-288, 2001.
[32] G. Rhodes, F.G. Proffitt, and A.J.M. Sumich, "Facial Symmetry and the Perception of Beauty," Psychonomic Bull. and Rev., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 659-669, 1998.
[33] L. Yin, X. Wei, Y. Sun, J. Wang, and M. Rosato, "A 3D Facial Expression Database for Facial Behavior Research," Proc. Seventh Int'l Conf. Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, pp. 211-216, 2006.
30 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool