The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.04 - April (2012 vol.18)
pp: 634-642
3D object selection is more demanding when, 1) objects densly surround the target object, 2) the target object is significantly occluded, and 3) when the target object is dynamically changing location. Most 3D selection techniques and guidelines were developed and tested on static or mostly sparse environments. In contrast, games tend to incorporate densly packed and dynamic objects as part of their typical interaction. With the increasing popularity of 3D selection in games using hand gestures or motion controllers, our current understanding of 3D selection needs revision. We present a study that compared four different selection techniques under five different scenarios based on varying object density and motion dynamics. We utilized two existing techniques, Raycasting and SQUAD, and developed two variations of them, Zoom and Expand, using iterative design. Our results indicate that while Raycasting and SQUAD both have weaknesses in terms of speed and accuracy in dense and dynamic environments, by making small modifications to them (i.e., flavoring), we can achieve significant performance increases.
virtual reality, computer games, iterative methods, user interfaces, iterative design, dense 3D object selection, dynamic 3D object selection, game-based virtual environment, 3D selection techniques, 3D selection guidelines, sparse environment, hand gesture, motion controller, object density, motion dynamics, Raycasting technique, SQUAD technique, zoom variation, expand variation, Three dimensional displays, Games, Guidelines, Accuracy, Usability, Context, Color, dense and dynamic objects., Interaction techniques, game-based virtual environments, 3D object selection
J. Cashion, C. Wingrave, J. J. LaViola, "Dense and Dynamic 3D Selection for Game-Based Virtual Environments", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.18, no. 4, pp. 634-642, April 2012, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2012.40
[1] F. Argelaguet and C. Andujar, Efficient 3D Pointing Selection in Cluttered Virtual Environments. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol. 29, Issue 6, 2009.
[2] D. Bowman, J. Chen, C. Wingrave et. al. New Directions in 3D User Interfaces. The Int. Journal of Virtual Reality, 2006, 5(2), pp. 3–14.
[3] D. Bowman, J. Gabbard, and D. Hix, A Survey of Usability Evaluation in Virtual Environments: Classification and Comparison of Methods. Presence: Teleoperators and V.E., 2002, 11(4), pp. 404–424.
[4] D. Bowman and L. Hodges, An Evaluation of Techniques for Grabbing and Manipulating Remote Objects in Immersive Virtual Environments. Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, 1997, pp. 35–38
[5] A. Forsberg, K. Herndon, and R. Zeleznik, 1996. Aperture based selection for immersive virtual environments. ACM Symposium on User interface software and technology (UIST '96). ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. 95–96.
[6] D. Bowman, E. Kruijff, J. LaViola, and I. Poupyrev, 3D User Interfaces: Theory and Practice. Addison-Wesley, 2004.
[7] G. De Haan, M. Koutek, and F. Post, IntenSelect: Using Dynamic Object Rating for Assisting 3D Object Selection. EGVE, 2005.
[8] S. Holm, A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics 6, 2, pp. 65-70, 1979.
[9] R. Kopper, F. Bacim, and D. Bowman, Rapid and accurate 3D selection by progressive refinement. IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces (3DUI), 2011.
[10] J. Liang and M. Green, JDCAD: a highly interactive 3D modeling system. Proceedings of Third International Conference on CAD and Computer Graphics, 1994, pp. 217-222.
[11] J. Lucas, D. Bowman, J. Chen, and C. Wingrave, Design and Evaluation of 3D Multiple Object Selection Techniques. Symposium of Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, 2005.
[12] A. Olwal and S. Feiner, The Flexible Pointer: An Interaction Technique for Selection in Augmented and Virtual Reality. ACM Symposium on User interface software and technology (UIST 2003), 2003.
[13] D. Rosa and H. Nagel, Selection Techniques for Dense and Occluded Virtual 3D Environments, supported by Depth Feedback. XXIX International Conference of the Chilean Computer Science Society, 2010.
[14] A. Steed, Towards a General Model for Selection in Virtual Environments. IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces (3DUI), 2006.
[15] Unity 3D Game Development Tool, available at http:/
[16] L. Vanacken, T. Grossman, and K. Coninx, Exploring the Effects of Environment Density and Target Visibility on Object Selection in 3D Virtual Environments. IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces (3DUI), 2007.
[17] C. Wingrave, 3DUI Flavors Beyond Vanilla. SEARIS Workshop, 2009.
[18] C. Wmgrave and D. Bowman, Baseline Factors tor Raycastmg Selection. Proceedings of HCI International, 2005.
[19] C. Wingrave, D. Bowman, and N. Ramakrishnan, Towards preferences in virtual environment interfaces. In: Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop on Virtual Environments, 2002.
[20] C. Wingrave, R. Tintner, B. Walker, D. Bowman, L. Hodges, Exploring Individual Differences in Raybased Selection; Strategies and Traits. In Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality (VR '05).
27 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool