The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.05 - May (2011 vol.17)
pp: 694-708
Günay Orbay , Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh
Levent Burak Kara , Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh
We propose a new sketch parsing and beautification method that converts digitally created design sketches into beautified line drawings. Our system uses a trainable, sequential bottom-up and top-down stroke clustering method that learns how to parse input pen strokes into groups of strokes each representing a single curve, followed by point-cloud ordering that facilitates curve fitting and smoothing. This approach enables greater conceptual freedom during visual ideation activities by allowing designers to develop their sketches using multiple, casually drawn strokes without requiring them to indicate the separation between different stroke groups. With the proposed method, raw sketches are seamlessly converted into vectorized geometric models, thus, facilitating downstream assessment and editing activities.
Sketch-based design, conceptual design, sketch parsing, sketch beautification, supervised stroke clustering, Laplacian Eigenmaps, curve fitting.
Günay Orbay, Levent Burak Kara, "Beautification of Design Sketches Using Trainable Stroke Clustering and Curve Fitting", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.17, no. 5, pp. 694-708, May 2011, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2010.105
[1] K.T. Ulrich and S.D. Eppinger, Product Design and Development, fourth ed. McGraw-Hill, 2008.
[2] D.G. Ullman, S. Wood, and D. Craig, “The Importance of Drawing in the Mechanical Design Process,” Computers & Graphics, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 263-274, 1990.
[3] I. Verstijnen, C. Van Leeuwen, G. Goldschmidt, R. Hamel, and J. Hennessey, “Sketching and Creative Discovery,” Design Studies, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 519-546, 1998.
[4] T. Igarashi, S. Matsuoka, S. Kawachiya, and H. Tanaka, “Interactive Beautification: A Technique for Rapid Geometric Design,” Proc. 10th Ann. ACM Symp. User Interface Software and Technology (UIST '97), pp. 105-114, 1997.
[5] T. Baudel, “A Mark-Based Interaction Paradigm for Free-Hand Drawing,” Proc. Seventh Ann. ACM Symp. User Interface Software and Technology, pp. 185-192, 1994.
[6] J. Arvo and K. Novins, “Fluid Sketches: Continuous Recognition and Morphing of Simple Hand-Drawn Shapes,” Proc. 13th Ann. ACM Symp. User Interface Software and Technology, pp. 73-80, 2000.
[7] S.-H. Bae, W.-S. Kim, and E.-S. Kwon, “Digital Styling for Designers: Sketch Emulation in Computer Environment,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Computational Science and Its Applications (ICCSA '03), p. 987, 2003.
[8] L.B. Kara, C.M. D'Eramo, and K. Shimada, “Pen-Based Styling Design of 3D Geometry Using Concept Sketches and Template Models,” Proc. 2006 ACM Symp. Solid and Physical Modeling (SPM '06), pp. 149-160, 2006.
[9] R. Schmidt, B. Wyvill, M.C. Sousa, and J.A. Jorge, “Shapeshop: Sketch-Based Solid Modeling with Blobtrees,” Proc. Second Eurographics Workshop Sketch-Based Interfaces and Modeling, pp. 53-62, 2005.
[10] L.B. Kara and K. Shimada, “Sketch-Based 3D-Shape Creation for Industrial Styling Design,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 60-71, Jan. 2007.
[11] E. Saund, “Labeling of Curvilinear Structure across Scales by Token Grouping,” Proc. IEEE CS Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 257-263, 1992.
[12] A. Shesh and B. Chen, “Smartpaper: An Interactive and User Friendly Sketching System,” Proc. Conf. Eurographics, vol. 23, no. 3, 2004.
[13] P. Barla, J. Thollot, and F. Sillion, “Geometric Clustering for Line Drawing Simplification,” Proc. Eurographics Symp. Rendering, 2005.
[14] R. Pusch, F. Samavati, A. Nasri, and B. Wyvill, “Improving the Sketch-Based Interface: Forming Curves from Many Small Strokes,” The Visual Computer, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 955-962, 2007.
[15] A. Shesh and B. Chen, “Efficient and Dynamic Simplification of Line Drawings,” Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 537-545, 2008.
[16] W. Wang, H. Pottmann, and Y. Liu, “Fitting B-Spline Curves to Point Clouds by Curvature-Based Squared Distance Minimization,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 214-238, 2006.
[17] Z. Yang, J. Deng, and F. Chen, “Fitting Unorganized Point Clouds with Active Implicit B-Spline Curves,” The Visual Computer, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 831-839, 2005.
[18] M. Kass, A. Witkin, and D. Terzopoulos, “Snakes: Active Contour Models,” Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 321-331, 1988.
[19] D. Shepard, “A Two-Dimensional Interpolation Function for Irregularly-Spaced Data,” Proc. 1968 23rd ACM Nat'l Conf., pp. 517-524, 1968.
[20] P. Lancaster and K. Salkauskas, “Surfaces Generated by Moving Least Squares Methods,” Math. Computation, vol. 37, no. 155, pp. 141-158, 1981.
[21] A. Goshtasby, “Grouping and Parameterizing Irregularly Spaced Points for Curve Fitting,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 185-203, 2000.
[22] C. Zahn, “Graph-Theoretical Methods for Detecting and Describing Gestalt Clusters,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 68-86, Jan. 1971.
[23] J. Kruskal,Jr., “On the Shortest Spanning Subtree of a Graph and the Traveling Salesman Problem,” Proc. Am. Math. Soc., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 48-50, 1956.
[24] R. Prim, “Shortest Connection Networks and Some Generalizations,” Bell System Technical J., vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1389-1401, 1957.
[25] M. Kass, A. Witkin, and D. Terzopoulos, “Snakes: Active Contour Models,” Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 321-331, 1988.
[26] M. Belkin and P. Niyogi, “Laplacian Eigenmaps for Dimensionality Reduction and Data Representation,” Neural Computing, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1373-1396, 2003.
[27] S. Roweis and L. Saul, “Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction by Locally Linear Embedding,” Science, vol. 290, no. 5500, pp. 2323-2326, 2000.
[28] J. Tenenbaum, V. Silva, and J. Langford, “A Global Geometric Framework for Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction,” Science, vol. 290, no. 5500, pp. 2319-2323, 2000.
[29] C. Zahn and R. Roskies, “Fourier Descriptors for Plane Closed Curves,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 269-281, Mar. 1972.
[30] A. Savitzky and M.J.E. Golay, “Smoothing and Differentiation of Data by Simplified Least Squares Procedures,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 36, pp. 1627-1639, 1964.
[31] I. Lee, “Curve Reconstruction from Unorganized Points,” Computer Aided Geometric Design, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 161-177, 2000.
[32] L. Peigl and W. Tiller, The NURBS Book. Springer, 1995.
3 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool