The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.06 - November/December (2010 vol.16)
pp: 1182-1189
Bongshin Lee , Microsoft Research
Nathalie Henry Riche , Microsoft Research
Amy K. Karlson , Microsoft Research
Sheelash Carpendale , University of Calgary
Tag clouds have proliferated over the web over the last decade. They provide a visual summary of a collection of texts by visually depicting the tag frequency by font size. In use, tag clouds can evolve as the associated data source changes over time. Interesting discussions around tag clouds often include a series of tag clouds and consider how they evolve over time. However, since tag clouds do not explicitly represent trends or support comparisons, the cognitive demands placed on the person for perceiving trends in multiple tag clouds are high. In this paper, we introduce SparkClouds, which integrate sparklines [23] into a tag cloud to convey trends between multiple tag clouds. We present results from a controlled study that compares SparkClouds with two traditional trend visualizations—multiple line graphs and stacked bar charts—as well as Parallel Tag Clouds [4]. Results show that SparkClouds ability to show trends compares favourably to the alternative visualizations.
Tag clouds, trend visualization, multiple line graphs, stacked bar charts, evaluation
Bongshin Lee, Nathalie Henry Riche, Amy K. Karlson, Sheelash Carpendale, "SparkClouds: Visualizing Trends in Tag Clouds", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.16, no. 6, pp. 1182-1189, November/December 2010, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2010.194
[1] ABC News - Tag Cloud - News topics organized to show what's in today's headlines,
[2] S. Bateman, C. Gutwin, and M. Nacenta, "Seeing things in the clouds: the effect of visual features on tag cloud selections," Proc. HYPERTEXT '08, pp. 193–202, 2008.
[3] P. Bausch and J. Bumgardner, Flickr Hacks. O'Reilly Press, pp. 82–86, 2006.
[4] C. Collins, F.B. Viégas, and M. Wattenberg, "Parallel Tag Clouds to Explore Faceted Text Corpora," Proc. VAST '09, pp. 91–98, 2009.
[5] M. Dubinko, R. Kumar, J. Magnani, J. Novak, P. Raghavan, and A. Tomkins, "Visualizing Tags over Time," Proc. WWW '06, pp. 193–202, 2006.
[6] Explore tags on Delicious, http://delicious.comtag
[7] P. Gambette and J. Véronis, "Visualising a Text with a Tree Cloud," Proc. 11th IFCSBiennial Conference, 2009.
[8] M.J. Halvey and M.T. Keane, "An assessment of tag presentation techniques," Proc. WWW '07, pp. 1313–1314, 2007.
[9] S. Havre, H. Elizabeth, P. Whitney, and L. Nowell, "ThemeRiver: Visualizing Thematic Changes in Large Document Collections," IEEE TVCG, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 9–20, 2002.
[10] A. Jaffe, M. Naaman, T. Tassa, and M. Davis, "Generating Summaries and Visualization for Large Collections of Geo-Referenced Photographs," Proc. MIR '06, pp. 89–98, 2006.
[11] O. Kaser and D. Lemire, "Tag-Cloud Drawing: Algorithms for Cloud Visualization," Proc. WWW '07 Workshop on Tagging and Metadata for Social Information Organization, 2007.
[12] S. Lohmann, J. Ziegler, and L. Tetzlaff, "Comparison of Tag Cloud Layouts: Task-Related Performance and Visual Exploration," Proc. Interact '09, LNCS 5726, pp. 392–404, 2009.
[13] Many Eyes: Tag Cloud, pageTag_Cloud.html
[14] S. Milgram and D. Jodelet, "Psychological maps of Paris," W.I.H. Proshansky, and L. Rivlin eds., Environmental psychology,, New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, pp. 104–124, 1976.
[15] Popular Tags on Flickr,
[16] A.W. Rivadeneira, D.M. Gruen, M.J. Muller, and D.R. Millen, "Getting our head in the clouds: toward evaluation studies of tagclouds," Proc. CHI '07, pp. 995–998, 2007.
[17] T. Russell, "Tag decay: A view into aging folksonomies," Proc. ASIS&T '07, pp. 1–5, 2007.
[18] C. Seifert, B. Kump, W. Kienreich, G. Granitzer, and M. Granitzer, "On the Beauty and Usability of Tag Clouds," Proc. IV '08, pp. 17–25, 2008.
[19] J. Sinclair and M. Cardew-Hall, "The Folksonomy Tag Cloud: When is it Useful?" J. of Information Science, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 15–29, 2008.
[20] TagCrowd, http:/
[21] Tagline Generator,
[22] Tag Cloud Generator, http:/
[23] E.R. Tufte, Beautiful Evidence, Graphics Press.
[24] US Presidential Speeches Tag Cloud,
[25] F.B. Viégas and M. Wattenberg, "Tag Clouds and the Case for Vernacular Visualization," Interactions, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 49–52, July/August 2008.
[26] F.B. Viégas, M. Wattenberg, and J. Feinberg, "Participatory Visualization with Wordle," IEEE TVCG (InfoVis '09), vol. 15, no.6, pp. 1137–1144, 2009.
[27] M. Wattenberg, "Baby names, visualization, and social data analysis," Proc. InfoVis '05, pp, 1–7, 2005.
[28] W. Willett, J. Heer, M. Agrawala, "Scented Widgets: Improving Navigation Cues with Embedded Visualizations," IEEE TVCG (InfoVis '07), vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1129–1136, 2007.
[29] Wordle - Beautiful Word Clouds, http:/
19 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool