The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.06 - November/December (2009 vol.15)
pp: 1057-1064
Edward Clarkson , Georgia Tech
Krishna Desai , Georgia Tech
James Foley , Georgia Tech
Hierarchical representations are common in digital repositories, yet are not always fully leveraged in their onlinesearch interfaces. This work describes ResultMaps, which use hierarchical treemap representations with query string-driven digital library search engines. We describe two lab experiments, which find that ResultsMap users yield significantly better results over a control condition on some subjective measures, and we find evidence that ResultMaps have ancillary benefits via increased understanding of some aspects of repository content. The ResultMap system and experiments contribute an understanding of the benefits—direct and indirect—of the ResultMap approach to repository search visualization.
Treemap, evaluation, user studies, digital library, digital repository, search engine, search visualization, infovis
Edward Clarkson, Krishna Desai, James Foley, "ResultMaps: Visualization for Search Interfaces", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.15, no. 6, pp. 1057-1064, November/December 2009, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2009.176
[1] Andrews K., Gutl C., Moser J., Sabol V., and Lackner W., Search Result Visualization with xFIND. InProc. of IEEE Workshop on User Interfaces to Data Intensive Systems '01, pp. 50-58.
[2] Bederson B., Shneiderman B., and Wattenberg M., Ordered and Quantum Treemaps: Making Effective Use of 2D Space to Display Hierarchies. ACM Trans. Graph. 21(4), 2002, pp. 833-854.
[3] Bille P. A, Survey on Tree Edit Distance and Related Problems. Theor. Comput. Sci. 337 (1-3), pp. 217-239.
[4] Börner K., Dillon A., and Dolinsky M., LVis - Digital Library Visualizer. In Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Information Visualization '00, pp. 77-81.
[5] Bruls M., Huizing K., and van Wijk J., Squarified treemaps. In Proc. of Eurographics/IEEE TCVG Symposium on Visualization '00, pp. 33-42.
[6] Capra R., Marchionini G., Oh J. S., Stutzman F., and Zhang Y, Effects of Structure and Interaction Style on Distinct Search Tasks. In Proc. of ACM/IEEE JCDL '07, pp. 442-451.
[7] Chen H., Houston A., Sewell R., and Schatz B, Internet Browsing and Searching: User Evaluations of Category Map and Concept Space Techniques, Journal of the Am. Soc. for Inform. Sci. 49(7), pp. 582-603.
[8] Clarkson E., Visual Search Interfaces for Online Digital Repositories. Ph.D. Dissertation, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009.
[9] Clarkson E., Day J., and Foley J., The Development of an Educational Digital Library for Human-Centered Computing. GVU T.R. GIT-GVU-03-33. Available at
[10] Clarkson E., Navathe S., and Foley J., Generalized Formal Models for Faceted User Interfaces. In Proc. of JCDL '09, pp. 125-134.
[11] Csallner C., Handte M., Lehmann O, and Stasko J., Fund Explorer: Supporting the Diversification of Mutual Fund Portfolios Using Context Treemaps. In Proc. of IEEE Information Visualization '03, pp. 203-208.
[12] Dachselt R., Frisch M., and Weiland M., Facet Zoom: A Continuous Multi-Scale Widget for Navigating Hierarchical Metadata. In Proc. of ACM CHI '08, pp. 1353-1356.
[13] Ghani J., Supnick R., and Rooney P., The Experience of Flow in Computer-mediated and in Face-to-face Groups. In Proc. of the International Conference on Information Systems '91, pp 229-237.
[14] Good L., Popat A., Janssen W., and Bier E., A Fluid Treemap Interface for Personal Digital Libraries. In Proc. of ECDL '05, pp. 162-173.
[15] Guan Z. and Cutrell E., An Eye-tracking Study of the Effect of Target Rank on Web Search. In Proc. of ACM CHI '07, pp. 417-420.
[16] Hearst M., TileBars: Visualization of Term Distribution Information in Full Text Information Access. In Proc. of ACM CHI '95, pp. 59-66.
[17] Hearst M. and Karadi C., Cat-a-Cone: An Interactive Interface for Specifying Searches and Viewing Retrieval Results using a Large Category Hierarchy. In Proc. of ACM IR '97, pp. 246-255.
[18] Heer J., Card S., and Landay J., prefuse: a Toolkit for Interactive Information Visualization. In Proc. of ACM CHI '05, pp. 421-430.
[19] Johnson B. and Shneiderman B., Tree-maps: A space filling approach to the visualization of hierarchical information structures. In Proc. of IEEE Visualization '91, pp. 284-291.
[20] Kampanya N., Shen R., Kim S., North C., Fox E., Citiviz: A Visual User Interface to the CITIDEL System. In Proc. ECDL '04, pp. 122-133.
[21] Klerkx J., Duval E., and Meire M., Using Information Visualization for Accessing Learning Object Repositories. In Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Information Visualization '04, pp. 465-470.
[22] Kohonen T., The Self-organizing Map. Proc. of the IEEE 78(9), pp. 1464-1480.
[23] Kules B., Supporting Exploratory Web Search with Meaningful and Stable Categorized Overviews. Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. of Md., 2006.
[24] Kules B. and Capra R., Constructing Exploratory Tasks for a Faceted Search Interface. In Proceedings of the Human-Computer Interaction and Information Retrieval Workshop, pp. 18-21.
[25] Lamping J. and Rao R., A focus+context Technique Based on Hyperbolic Geometry for Visualizing Large Hierarchies. In Proc. of ACM CHI '95, pp. 401-408.
[26] Lee B., Smith G., Robertson G., Czerwinski M., and Tan D, FacetLens: Exposing Trends and Relationships to Support Sensemaking within Faceted Datasets. In Proc. of ACM CHI '09, pp. 1293-1302.
[27] Lewis J., IBM Computer Usability Satisfaction Questionnaires: Psychometric Evaluation and Instructions for Use. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 7 (1) pp. 57-78.
[28] Lin X., Map Displays for Information Retrieval. Journal of the Amer. Soc. for Inform. Sci. 48(1), pp. 40-54.
[29] Nielsen J., "Mental Models For Search Are Getting Firmer." Jakob Nielsen's Alertbox, Internet column, May9 2005. Available at
[30] North C., Toward Measuring Visualization Insight, IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 26 (3), pp. 6-9.
[31] Nowell L., France R., Hix D., Heath L., and Fox E., Visualizing Search Results: Some Alternatives to Query-Document Similarity. In Proc. of ACM Information Retrieval '96, pp. 67-75.
[32] Olsen K., Korfhage R., Sochats K., Spring M., and Williams J., Visualization of a Document Collection: the VIBE System. Inf. Process Manage. 29 (1), pp. 69-81.
[33] Plaisant C., The challenge of information visualization evaluation. In Proc. of ACM Advanced Visual Interfaces '04, pp. 109-116.
[34] Rohrer R. and Swing E., Web-based information visualization. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 17 (4), pp. 52-59.
[35] Sebrechts M., Vasilakis J., Miller M., Cugini J., and Laskowski S., Visualization of Search Results: A Comparative Evaluation of Text, 2D, and 3D Interfaces. In Proc. of ACM IR '99, pp. 3-10.
[36] Shen R., Vemuri N., Fan W., da S., Torres R., and Fox E. A., Exploring digital libraries: integrating browsing, searching, and visualization. In Proc. of IEEE/ACM JCDL '06, pp. 1-10.
[37] Smith G., Czerwinski M., Meyers B., Robbins D., Robertson G., and Tan D., FacetMap: a Scalable Search and Browse Visualization. In Proc. of IEEE Information Visualization '06, pp. 797-804.
[38] Soukoreff R. and MacKenzie I. S., Measuring errors in text entry tasks: An application of the Levenshtein string distance statistic. In ACM CHI '01 Extended Abstracts, pp. 319-320.
[39] Veerasamy A. and Belkin N., Evaluation of a Tool for Visualization of Information Retrieval Results. In Proc. of ACM IR '96, pp. 85-92.
[40] Wise J., Thomas J., Pennock K., Lantrip D., Pottier M., Schur A., Crow V., Visualizing the Non-visual: Spatial Analysis and Interaction with Information from Text Documents. In Proc. of IEEE Information Visualization '95, pp. 51-58.
[41] Yee K., Swearingen K., Li K., and Hearst M., Faceted Metadata for Image Search and Browsing. In Proc. of ACM CHI '03, pp. 401-408.
64 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool