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Green Image
Issue No. 06 - November/December (2009 vol. 15)
ISSN: 1077-2626
pp: 921-928
Tamara Munzner , University of British Columbia
We present a nested model for the visualization design process withfour layers: characterize the problem domain, abstract into operationson data types, design visual encoding and interaction techniques, andcreate algorithms to execute techniques efficiently. The output from alevel above is input to the level below, bringing attention to thedesign challenge that an upstream error inevitably cascades to alldownstream levels. This model provides prescriptive guidance fordetermining appropriate evaluation approaches by identifying threatsto validity unique to each level. We call attention to specific stepsin the design and evaluation process that are often given shortshrift. We also provide three recommendations motivated by this model:authors should distinguish between these levels when claimingcontributions at more than one of them, authors should explicitlystate upstream assumptions at levels above the focus of a paper, andvisualization venues should accept more papers on domaincharacterization.
Models, frameworks, design, evaluation.

T. Munzner, "A Nested Process Model for Visualization Design and Validation," in IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol. 15, no. , pp. 921-928, 2009.
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