The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.05 - September/October (2009 vol.15)
pp: 815-827
Guillaume François , IRISA/INRIA and Orange Labs, France
Pascal Gautron , Orange Labs, France
Gaspard Breton , Orange Labs, France
Kadi Bouatouch , IRISA/INRIA, France
Rendering realistic organic materials is a challenging issue. The human eye is an important part of nonverbal communication which, consequently, requires specific modeling and rendering techniques to enhance the realism of virtual characters. We propose an image-based method for estimating both iris morphology and scattering features in order to generate convincing images of virtual eyes. In this regard, we develop a technique to unrefract iris photographs. We model the morphology of the human iris as an irregular multilayered tissue. We then approximate the scattering features of the captured iris. Finally, we propose a real-time rendering technique based on the subsurface texture mapping representation and introduce a precomputed refraction function as well as a caustic function, which accounts for the light interactions at the corneal interface.
Three-dimensional graphics and realism, image-based rendering, physically based modeling.
Guillaume François, Pascal Gautron, Gaspard Breton, Kadi Bouatouch, "Image-Based Modeling of the Human Eye", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.15, no. 5, pp. 815-827, September/October 2009, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2009.24
[1] G. François, S. Pattanaik, K. Bouatouch, and G. Breton, “Subsurface Texture Mapping,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 28, no. 1, pp.34-42, Jan./Feb. 2008.
[2] M.A. Sagar, D. Bullivant, G.D. Mallinson, and P.J. Hunter, “A Virtual Environment and Model of the Eye for Surgical Simulation,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp.205-212, 1994.
[3] A. Lefohn, B. Budge, P. Shirley, R. Caruso, and E. Reinhard, “An Ocularist's Approach to Human Iris Synthesis,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 23, no. 6, pp.70-75, Nov./Dec. 2003.
[4] J. Zuo and N.A. Schmid, “A Model Based, Anatomy Based Method for Synthesizing Iris Images,” Advances in Biometrics, vol. 3832, pp.428-435, 2005.
[5] M.W. Lam and G.V. Baranoski, “A Predictive Light Transport Model for the Human Iris,” Proc. Eurographics Workshop, pp.359-368, 2006.
[6] G.V.G. Baranoski and M.W.Y. Lam, “Qualitative Assessment of Undetectable Melanin Distribution in Lightly Pigmented Irides,” J. Biomedical Optics, vol. 12, no. 3, p.030501, , 2007.
[7] V.V. Tuchin, I.L. Maksimova, A.A. Mishin, and A.K. Mavlutov, “Scleral Tissue Light Scattering and Matter Diffusion,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 3246, pp.249-259, 1998.
[8] T. Saude, Ocular Anatomy and Physiology. Blackwell, 1993.
[9] E. Hecht and A. Zajac, Optics, second ed. Addison-Wesley, 1987.
[10] P. Imesch, C. Bindley, Z. Khademian, B. Ladd, R. Gangnon, D. Albert, and I. Wallow, “Melanocytes and Iris Color. Electron Microscopic Findings,” Archives of Ophtamology, vol. 114, no. 4, pp.443-447, 1996.
[11] I. Menon, P. Basu, S. Persad, M. Avaria, C. Felix, and B. Kalyanaraman, “Is There Any Difference in the Photobiological Properties of Melanins Isolated from Human Blue and Brown Eyes?” British J. Ophtamology, vol. 71, no. 7, pp.549-552, 1987.
[12] R.C. Eagle, “Iris Pigmentation and Pigmented Lesions: An Ultrastructural Study,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmological Soc., vol. 86, pp.581-687, 1988.
[13] P.E. Debevec and J. Malik, “Recovering High Dynamic Range Radiance Maps from Photographs,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '97, pp.369-378, 1997.
[14] K. Nishino and S.K. Nayar, “Eyes for Relighting,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '04, pp.704-711, 2004.
[15] H. Wang, S. Lin, X. Liu, and S.B. Kang, “Separating Reflections in Human Iris Images for Illumination Estimation,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Computer Vision (ICCV), pp.1691-1698, 2005.
[16] T.Y. Baker, “Ray Tracing through Nonspherical Surfaces,” Proc. Physical Soc., vol. 55, no. 5, pp.361-364, 1943.
[17] J. Nolte, “Iris and Pupil,” Physiology of the Human Eye and Visual System, pp.217-231, Harper and Row Publishers, Inc., 1979.
[18] M. Bertalmio, L. Vese, G. Sapiro, and S. Osher, “Simultaneous Structure and Texture Image Inpainting,” Computer Vision and Pattern Reconition (CVPR), vol. 2, p.707, 2003.
[19] C.J. Pavlin and F. Foster, Ultrasound Biomicroscopy of the Eye. Springer, 1994.
[20] E. d'Eon, D. Luebke, and E. Enderton, “Efficient Rendering of Human Skin,” Proc. Eurographics Symp. Rendering (EGSR), 2007.
[21] S.L. Jacques and D.J. McAuliffe, “The Melanosome: Threshold Temperature for Explosive Vaporization and Internal Absorption Coefficient during Pulsed Laser Irradiation,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 53, no. 6, pp.769-775, 1991.
[22] C. Donner and H.W. Jensen, “A Spectral BSSRDF for Shading Human Skin,” Proc. Eurographics Symp. Rendering (EGSR), pp.409-418, 2006.
[23] R.S. Snell and M.A. Lemp, Clinical Anatomy of the Eye, second ed. Blackwell Science, 1997.
[24] N.G. Khlebtsov, I.L. Maksimova, V.V. Tuchin, and L.V. Wang, “Introduction to Light Scattering by Biological Objects,” Handbook of Optical Biomedical Diagnostics, pp.31-169, Soc. of Photo Optical, 2002.
[25] T.H. Cormen, C.E. Leiserson, R.L. Rivest, and C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms, second ed. MIT Press,
[26] S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer. Clarendon Press, 1950.
[27] F. Policarpo, M.M. Oliveira, and J.L.D. Comba, “Real-Time Relief Mapping on Arbitrary Polygonal Surfaces,” Proc. Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics and Games (SI3D '05), pp.155-162, 2005.
[28] S.A. Sullivan, “Experimental Study of the Absorption in Distilled Water, Artificial Sea Water, and Heavy Water in the Visible Region of the Spectrum,” J. Optical Soc. Am., vol. 53, no. 8, pp.962-968, 1963.
[29] T. VanDenBerg and K. Tan, “Light Transmittance of the Human Cornea from 320 to 700 nm for Different Ages,” Vision Research, vol. 34, pp.1453-1456, 1994.
[30] A.B. Reese, Tumors of the Eye, third ed. Harper and Row, 1976.
[31] G. Prota, D. Hu, M.R. Vincensi, S.A. McCormick, and A. Napolitano, “Characterization of Melanins in Human Irides and Cultured Uveal Melanocytes from Eyes of Different Colors,” Experimental Eye Research, vol. 67, no. 3, pp.293-299, 1998.
19 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool