Issue No. 05 - September/October (2009 vol. 15)
DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TVCG.2009.31
Thomas Kerwin , The Ohio State University and the Ohio Supercomputer Center, Columbus
Don Stredney , The Ohio State University and the Ohio Supercomputer Center, Columbus
Han-Wei Shen , The Ohio State University, Columbus
We present techniques to improve visual realism in an interactive surgical simulation application: a mastoidectomy simulator that offers a training environment for medical residents as a complement to using a cadaver. As well as displaying the mastoid bone through volume rendering, the simulation allows users to experience haptic feedback and appropriate sound cues while controlling a virtual bone drill and suction/irrigation device. The techniques employed to improve realism consist of a fluid simulator and a shading model. The former allows for deformable boundaries based on volumetric bone data, while the latter gives a wet look to the rendered bone to emulate more closely the appearance of the bone in a surgical environment. The fluid rendering includes bleeding effects, meniscus rendering, and refraction. We incorporate a planar computational fluid dynamics simulation into our three-dimensional rendering to effect realistic blood diffusion. Maintaining real-time performance while drilling away bone in the simulation is critical for engagement with the system.
Health, virtual reality, volume rendering, blood.
Thomas Kerwin, Don Stredney, Han-Wei Shen, "Enhancing Realism of Wet Surfaces in Temporal Bone Surgical Simulation", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol. 15, no. , pp. 747-758, September/October 2009, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2009.31