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Issue No.05 - September/October (2009 vol.15)
pp: 747-758
Thomas Kerwin , The Ohio State University and the Ohio Supercomputer Center, Columbus
Han-Wei Shen , The Ohio State University, Columbus
Don Stredney , The Ohio State University and the Ohio Supercomputer Center, Columbus
We present techniques to improve visual realism in an interactive surgical simulation application: a mastoidectomy simulator that offers a training environment for medical residents as a complement to using a cadaver. As well as displaying the mastoid bone through volume rendering, the simulation allows users to experience haptic feedback and appropriate sound cues while controlling a virtual bone drill and suction/irrigation device. The techniques employed to improve realism consist of a fluid simulator and a shading model. The former allows for deformable boundaries based on volumetric bone data, while the latter gives a wet look to the rendered bone to emulate more closely the appearance of the bone in a surgical environment. The fluid rendering includes bleeding effects, meniscus rendering, and refraction. We incorporate a planar computational fluid dynamics simulation into our three-dimensional rendering to effect realistic blood diffusion. Maintaining real-time performance while drilling away bone in the simulation is critical for engagement with the system.
Health, virtual reality, volume rendering, blood.
Thomas Kerwin, Han-Wei Shen, Don Stredney, "Enhancing Realism of Wet Surfaces in Temporal Bone Surgical Simulation", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.15, no. 5, pp. 747-758, September/October 2009, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2009.31
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