The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.01 - January/February (2008 vol.14)
pp: 135-145
Clip art is a simplified illustration form consisting of layered filled polygons or closed curves used to convey 3-D shape information in a 2-D vector graphics format. This paper focuses on the problem of direct conversion of smooth surfaces, ranging from the free-form shapes of art and design to the mathematical structures of geometry and topology, into a clip art form suitable for illustration use in books, papers and presentations.We show how to represent silhouette, shadow, gleam and other surface feature curves as the intersection of implicit surfaces, and derive equations for their efficient interrogation via particle chains. We further describe how to sort, orient, identify and fill the closed regions that overlay to form clip art. We demonstrate the results with numerous renderings used to illustrate the paper itself.
particle systems, non-photorealistic rendering, line art drawing
Matei Stroila, Elmar Eisemann, John Hart, "Clip Art Rendering of Smooth Isosurfaces", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.14, no. 1, pp. 135-145, January/February 2008, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2007.1058
[1] A. Appel, “The Notion of Quantitative Invisibility and the Machine Rendering of Solids,” Proc. 22nd ACM Nat'l Conf., pp.387-393, 1967.
[2] J.F. Blinn, “Models of Light Reflection for Computer Synthesized Pictures,” Proc. Fourth Ann. Conf. Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (Siggraph '77), vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 307-316, 1977.
[3] CGAL-3.2 User and Reference Manual, CGAL Editorial Board, 2006.
[4] D.J. Bremer and J.F. Hughes, “Rapid Approximate Silhouette Rendering of Implicit Surfaces,” Proc. Third Int'l Workshop Implicit Surfaces (IS '98), pp. 155-164, 1998.
[5] S. Bruckner and M.E. Gröller, “Volumeshop: An Interactive System for Direct Volume Illustration,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Visualization (VIS '05), H. Rushmeier, C.T. Silva, and E. Gröller, ed., pp.671-678, Oct. 2005.
[6] M. Burns, J. Klawe, S. Rusinkiewicz, A. Finkelstein, and D. DeCarlo, “Line Drawings from Volume Data,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '05, pp. 512-518, 2005.
[7] J.C. Carr, R.K. Beatson, J.B. Cherrie, T.J. Mitchell, W.R. Fright, B.C. McCallum, and T.R. Evans, “Reconstruction and Representation of 3D Objects with Radial Basis Functions,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '01, pp. 67-76, 2001.
[8] J.C. Carr, R.K. Beatson, B.C. McCallum, W.R. Fright, T.J. McLennan, and T.J. Mitchell, “Smooth Surface Reconstruction from Noisy Range Data,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques in Australasia and South East Asia (GRAPHITE '03), pp.119-126, 2003.
[9] D. DeCarlo, A. Finkelstein, S. Rusinkiewicz, and A. Santella, “Suggestive Contours for Conveying Shape,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 848-855, 2003.
[10] G. Elber, “Line Art Illustrations of Parametric and Implicit Forms,” IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 71-81, Jan.-Mar. 1998.
[11] G. Elber and E. Cohen, “Hidden Curve Removal for Free Form Surfaces,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '90, pp. 95-104, 1990.
[12] E. Flato, D. Halperin, I. Hanniel, O. Nechushtan, and E. Ezra, “The Design and Implementation of Panar Maps in CGAL,” J.Experimental Algorithmics, vol. 5, p. 13, 2000.
[13] K. Foster, P. Jepp, B. Wyvill, M.C. Sousa, C. Galbraith, and J.A. Jorge, “Pen-and-Ink for BlobTree Implicit Models,” Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 24, no. 3, p. 267, 2005.
[14] G. Francis, A Topological Picturebook. Springer, 1987.
[15] R. Goldman, “Curvature Formulas for Implicit Curves and Surfaces,” Computer Aided Geometric Design, vol. 22, no. 7, pp.632-658, 2005.
[16] S. Grabli, E. Turquin, F. Durand, and F. Sillion, “Programmable Style for NPR Line Drawing,” Proc. 15th Eurographics Symp. Rendering (EGSR '04), pp. 33-44, 2004.
[17] P. Heckbert, “Fast Surface Particle Repulsion,” Technical Report CMU-CS-97-130, 1997.
[18] A. Hertzmann and D. Zorin, “Illustrating Smooth Surfaces,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '00, pp. 517-526, 2000.
[19] J. Hosche and D. Lasser, Fundamentals of Computer Aided Geometric Design. AK Peters, 1993.
[20] T. Isenberg, B. Freudenberg, N. Halper, S. Schlechtweg, and T. Strothotte, “A Developer's Guide to Silhouette Algorithms for Polygonal Models,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 28-37, July/Aug. 2003.
[21] R.D. Kalnins, P.L. Davidson, L. Markosian, and A. Finkelstein, “Coherent Stylized Silhouettes,” ACM Trans. Graphics/Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '03, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 856-861, 2003.
[22] J.J. Koenderink, “What Does the Occluding Contour Tell Us about Solid Shape?” Perception, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 321-330, 1984.
[23] L. Markosian, M.A. Kowalski, D. Goldstein, S.J. Trychin, J.F. Hughes, and L.D. Bourdev, “Real-Time Nonphotorealistic Rendering,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '97, pp. 415-420, 1997.
[24] S. Plantinga and G. Vegter, “Computing Contour Generators of Evolving Implicit Surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 1243-1280, 2006.
[25] Z. Salah, D. Bartz, and W. Straßer, “Illustrative Rendering of Segmented Anatomical Data,” Proc. 16th Conf. Simulation and Visualization (SimVis '05), 2005.
[26] W.Y. Su and J.C. Hart, “A Programmable Particle System Framework for Shape Modeling,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Shape Modeling and Applications (SMI' 05), pp. 114-123, 2005.
[27] K.G. Suffern and R.J. Balsys, “Rendering the Intersections of Implicit Surfaces,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 70-77, Sept./Oct. 2003.
[28] H. Winnemoeller, S.C. Olsen, and B. Gooch, “Real-Time Video Abstraction,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 1221-1226, 2006.
[29] A.P. Witkin and P.S. Heckbert, “Using Particles to Sample and Control Implicit Surfaces,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '94, pp. 269-277, 1994.
25 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool