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<p><b>Abstract</b>—Parametric PDE techniques, which use partial differential equations (PDEs) defined over a 2D or 3D parametric domain to model graphical objects and processes, can unify geometric attributes and functional constraints of the models. PDEs can also model implicit shapes defined by level sets of scalar intensity fields. In this paper, we present an approach that integrates parametric and implicit trivariate PDEs to define geometric solid models containing both geometric information and intensity distribution subject to flexible boundary conditions. The integrated formulation of second-order or fourth-order elliptic PDEs permits designers to manipulate PDE objects of complex geometry and/or arbitrary topology through direct sculpting and free-form modeling. We developed a PDE-based geometric modeling system for shape design and manipulation of PDE objects. The integration of implicit PDEs with parametric geometry offers more general and arbitrary shape blending and free-form modeling for objects with intensity attributes than pure geometric models.</p>
PDE techniques, geometric modeling, solid models, implicit models, free-form deformation, shape blending.

H. Du and H. Qin, "Free-Form Geometric Modeling by Integrating Parametric and Implicit PDEs," in IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol. 13, no. , pp. 549-561, 2007.
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