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We present a novel approach for interactive view-dependent rendering of massive models. Our algorithm combines view-dependent simplification, occlusion culling, and out-of-core rendering. We represent the model as a clustered hierarchy of progressive meshes (CHPM). We use the cluster hierarchy for coarse-grained selective refinement and progressive meshes for fine-grained local refinement. We present an out-of-core algorithm for computation of a CHPM that includes cluster decomposition, hierarchy generation, and simplification. We introduce novel cluster dependencies in the preprocess to generate crack-free, drastic simplifications at runtime. The clusters are used for LOD selection, occlusion culling, and out-of-core rendering. We add a frame of latency to the rendering pipeline to fetch newly visible clusters from the disk and avoid stalls. The CHPM reduces the refinement cost of view-dependent rendering by more than an order of magnitude as compared to a vertex hierarchy. We have implemented our algorithm on a desktop PC. We can render massive CAD, isosurface, and scanned models, consisting of tens or a few hundred million triangles at 15--35 frames per second with little loss in image quality.
Index Terms- Interactive display, view-dependent rendering, occlusion culling, external-memory algorithm, out-of-core algorithms, levels-of-detail.

D. Manocha, B. Salomon, S. Yoon and R. Gayle, "Quick-VDR: Out-of-Core View-Dependent Rendering of Gigantic Models," in IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol. 11, no. , pp. 369-382, 2005.
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