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Simulation of the musculoskeletal system has important applications in biomechanics, biomedical engineering, surgery simulation, and computer graphics. The accuracy of the muscle, bone, and tendon geometry as well as the accuracy of muscle and tendon dynamic deformation are of paramount importance in all these applications. We present a framework for extracting and simulating high resolution musculoskeletal geometry from the segmented visible human data set. We simulate 30 contact/collision coupled muscles in the upper limb and describe a computationally tractable implementation using an embedded mesh framework. Muscle geometry is embedded in a nonmanifold, connectivity preserving simulation mesh molded out of a lower resolution BCC lattice containing identical, well-shaped elements, leading to a relaxed time step restriction for stability and, thus, reduced computational cost. The muscles are endowed with a transversely isotropic, quasi-incompressible constitutive model that incorporates muscle fiber fields as well as passive and active components. The simulation takes advantage of a new robust finite element technique that handles both degenerate and inverted tetrahedra.
Finite volume methods, constructive solid geometry, physically-based modeling.

J. Teran, R. Fedkiw, S. S. Blemker, E. Sifakis, V. Ng-Thow-Hing and C. Lau, "Creating and Simulating Skeletal Muscle from the Visible Human Data Set," in IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol. 11, no. , pp. 317-328, 2005.
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