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<p><b>Abstract</b>—We present a new method for converting a photo or image to a synthesized painting following the painting style of an example painting. Treating painting styles of brush strokes as sample textures, we reduce the problem of learning an example painting to a texture synthesis problem. The proposed method uses a hierarchical patch-based approach to the synthesis of directional textures. The key features of our method are: 1) Painting styles are represented as one or more blocks of sample textures selected by the user from the example painting; 2) image segmentation and brush stroke directions defined by the medial axis are used to better represent and communicate shapes and objects present in the synthesized painting; 3) image masks and a hierarchy of texture patches are used to efficiently synthesize high-quality directional textures. The synthesis process is further accelerated through texture direction quantization and the use of Gaussian pyramids. Our method has the following advantages: First, the synthesized stroke textures can follow a direction field determined by the shapes of regions to be painted. Second, the method is very efficient; the generation time of a synthesized painting ranges from a few seconds to about one minute, rather than hours, as required by other existing methods, on a commodity PC. Furthermore, the technique presented here provides a new and efficient solution to the problem of synthesizing a 2D directional texture. We use a number of test examples to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method and the high quality of results produced by the method.</p>
Digital painting, example-based painting, painting style, artistic filter, painting systems, simulation, image segmentation, Gaussian pyramid, texture synthesis, directional texture, nonphotorealistic rendering.

B. Wang, W. Wang, J. Sun and H. Yang, "Efficient Example-Based Painting and Synthesis of 2D Directional Texture," in IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol. 10, no. , pp. 266-277, 2004.
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