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<p><b>Abstract</b>—This paper presents a computational technique for creating whole-body motions of human and animal characters without reference motion. Our work enables animators to generate a natural motion by dragging a link to an arbitrary position with any number of links pinned in the global frame, as well as other constraints such as desired joint angles and joint motion ranges. The method leads to an intuitive pin-and-drag interface where the user can generate whole-body motions by simply switching on or off or strengthening or weakening the constraints. This work is based on a new interactive inverse kinematics technique that allows more flexible attachment of pins and various types of constraints. Editing or retargeting captured motion requires only a small modification to the original method, although it can also create natural motions from scratch. We demonstrate the usefullness and advantage of our method with a number of example motion clips.</p>
Animation, online inverse kinematics computation, multiple constraints, motion editing, joint motion range.

Y. Nakamura and K. Yamane, "Natural Motion Animation through Constraining and Deconstraining at Will," in IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol. 9, no. , pp. 352-360, 2003.
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