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<p><b>Abstract</b>—This paper discusses and experimentally compares distance-based acceleration algorithms for ray-tracing of volumetric data with an emphasis on the <it>Chessboard Distance (CD) voxel traversal</it>. The acceleration of this class of algorithms is achieved by skipping empty macro regions, which are defined for each background voxel of the volume. Background voxels are labeled in a preprocessing phase by a value, defining the macro region size, which is equal to the voxel distance to the nearest foreground voxel. The CD algorithm exploits the chessboard distance and defines the ray as a nonuniform sequence of samples positioned at voxel faces. This feature assures that no foreground voxels are missed during the scene traversal. Further, due to parallelepipedal shape of the macro region, it supports accelerated visualization of cubic, regular, and rectilinear grids. The CD algorithm is suitable for all modifications of the ray tracing/ray casting techniques being used in volume visualization and volume graphics. However, when used for rendering based on local surface interpolation, it also enables fast search of intersections between rays and the interpolated surface, further improving speed of the process.</p>
Volume visualization, volume graphics, volume rendering, distance transforms, macro region, voxel traversal, speed up techniques, subvoxel precision.

M. Sramek and A. Kaufman, "Fast Ray-Tracing of Rectilinear Volume Data Using Distance Transforms," in IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol. 6, no. , pp. 236-252, 2000.
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