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<p><b>Abstract</b>—Collision detection is of paramount importance for many applications in computer graphics and visualization. Typically, the input to a collision detection algorithm is a large number of geometric objects comprising an environment, together with a set of objects moving within the environment. In addition to determining accurately the contacts that occur between pairs of objects, one needs also to do so at <it>real-time</it> rates. Applications such as haptic force-feedback can require over 1,000 collision queries per second.</p><p>In this paper, we develop and analyze a method, based on bounding-volume hierarchies, for efficient collision detection for objects moving within highly complex environments. Our choice of bounding volume is to use a "discrete orientation polytope" ("<it>k</it>-dop"), a convex polytope whose facets are determined by halfspaces whose outward normals come from a small <it>fixed</it> set of <it>k</it> orientations. We compare a variety of methods for constructing hierarchies ("BV-trees") of bounding <it>k</it>-dops. Further, we propose algorithms for maintaining an effective BV-tree of <it>k</it>-dops for moving objects, as they rotate, and for performing fast collision detection using BV-trees of the moving objects and of the environment.</p><p>Our algorithms have been implemented and tested. We provide experimental evidence showing that our approach yields substantially faster collision detection than previous methods.</p>
Collision detection, intersection searching, bounding volume hierarchies, discrete orientation polytopes, bounding boxes, virtual reality, virtual environments.

J. T. Klosowski, K. Zikan, J. S. Mitchell, M. Held and H. Sowizral, "Efficient Collision Detection Using Bounding Volume Hierarchies of k-DOPs," in IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol. 4, no. , pp. 21-36, 1998.
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