The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.12 - Dec. (2013 vol.24)
pp: 2472-2481
Tamer Abdelkader , University of Waterloo, Waterloo
Kshirasagar Naik , University of Waterloo, Waterloo
Amiya Nayak , University of Ottawa, Ottawa
Nishith Goel , Cistech Limited, Ottawa
Vineet Srivastava , Cistech Limited, Ottawa
Delay tolerant networks (DTN) are characterized by a lack of continuous end-to-end connections due to node mobility, constrained power sources, and limited data storage space of some or all of its nodes. To overcome the frequent disconnections, DTN nodes are required to store data packets for long periods of time until they come near other nodes. Moreover, to increase the delivery probability, they spread multiple copies of the same packet on the network so that one of them reaches the destination. Given the limited storage and energy resources of many DTN nodes, there is a tradeoff between maximizing delivery and minimizing storage and energy consumption. In this paper, we study the routing problem in DTN with limited resources. We formulate a mathematical model for optimal routing, assuming the presence of a global observer that can collect information about all the nodes in the network. Next, we propose a new protocol based on social grouping among the nodes to maximize data delivery while minimizing network overhead by efficiently spreading the packet copies in the network. We compare the new protocol with the optimal results and the existing well-known routing protocols using real life simulations. Results show that the proposed protocol achieves higher delivery ratio and less average delay compared to other protocols with significant reduction in network overhead.
Routing protocols, Delays, Fault tolerant systems, Receivers, Social network services,social grouping, Delay tolerant networks, routing protocols
Tamer Abdelkader, Kshirasagar Naik, Amiya Nayak, Nishith Goel, Vineet Srivastava, "SGBR: A Routing Protocol for Delay Tolerant Networks Using Social Grouping", IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol.24, no. 12, pp. 2472-2481, Dec. 2013, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2012.235
[1] "Delay Tolerant Networking Research Group." http:/www., 2013.
[2] A. Pentland, R. Fletcher, and A. Hasson, "Daknet: Rethinking Connectivity in Developing Nations," Computer, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 78-83, Jan. 2004.
[3] C. Maihöfer and R. Eberhardt, "Time-Stable Geocast for Ad Hoc Networks and Its Application with Virtual Warning Signs," Computer Comm., vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 1065-1075, 2004.
[4] J. Ott and D. Kutscher, "Drive-Thru Internet: Ieee 802.11b for Automobile Users," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2004.
[5] P. Juang, H. Oki, Y. Wang, M. Martonosi, L.S. Peh, and D. Rubenstein, "Energy-Efficient Computing for Wildlife Tracking: Design Tradeoffs and Early Experiences with Zebranet," Proc. SIGARCH Computer Architecture News, vol. 30, pp. 96-107, Oct. 2002.
[6] T. Small and Z.J. Haas, "The Shared Wireless Infostation Model: A New Ad Hoc Networking Paradigm (or Where There is a Whale, There is a Way)," Proc. ACM MobiHoc, pp. 233-244, June 2003.
[7] "Sensor Networking with Delay Tolerance (Sendt)." http://down.dsg.cs.tcd.iesendt/, 2013.
[8] A. Lindgren, A. Doria, and O. Schelen, "Probabilistic Routing in Intermittently Connected Networks," SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Comm. Rev., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 19-20, July 2003.
[9] J. Burgess, B. Gallagher, D. Jensen, and B.N. Levine, "Maxprop: Routing for Vehicle-Based Disruption-Tolerant Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1-11, Apr. 2006.
[10] P. Hui, J. Crowcroft, and E. Yoneki, "Bubble Rap: Social-Based Forwarding in Delay-Tolerant Networks," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1576-1589, Nov. 2011.
[11] E. Bulut, Z. Wang, and B. Szymanski, "Impact of Social Networks on Delay Tolerant Routing," Proc. IEEE GlobeCom, pp. 1-6, Dec. 2009.
[12] E.M. Daly and M. Haahr, "Social Network Analysis for Routing in Disconnected Delay-Tolerant Manets," Proc. ACM Eighth Int'l Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing, pp. 32-40, 2007.
[13] A. Vahdat and D. Becker, "Epidemic Routing for Partially Connected Ad Hoc Networks," Technical Report CS-200006, Duke Univ., Apr. 2000.
[14] T. Spyropoulos, K. Psounis, and C.S. Raghavendra, "Efficient Routing in Intermittently Connected Mobile Networks: The Multiple-Copy Case," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networks, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 77-90, Feb. 2008.
[15] T. Abdelkader, K. Naik, and A. Nayak, "Choosing the Objective of Optimal Routing Protocols in Delay Tolerant Networks," Proc. IEEE Sixth Int'l Computer Eng. Conf., Dec. 2010.
[16] T. Spyropoulos, K. Psounis, and C.S. Raghavendra, "Performance Analysis of Mobility-Assisted Routing," Proc. MobiHoc '06, pp. 49-60, 2006.
[17] A. Chaintreau, P. Hui, J. Crowcroft, C. Diot, R. Gass, and J. Scott, "Impact of Human Mobility on Opportunistic Forwarding Algorithms," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 606-620, June 2007.
[18] A. Keränen, J. Ott, and T. Kärkkäinen, "The ONE Simulator for DTN Protocol Evaluation," Proc. Second Int'l Conf. Simulation Tools and Techniques (SIMUTools '09), 2009.
[19] "Lpsolve: Open Source (Mixed-Integer) Linear Programming System," http://lpsolve.sourceforge.net5.1/, 2013.
[20] Z. Zhang, "Routing in Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks and Delay Tolerant Networks: Overview and Challenges," IEEE Comm. Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 24-37, Mar. 2007.
[21] T. Spyropoulos, K. Psounis, and C.S. Raghavendra, "Spray and Wait: An Efficient Routing Scheme for Intermittently Connected Mobile Networks," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 252-259, 2005.
[22] T. Abdelkader, K. Naik, and A. Nayak, "An Eco-Friendly Routing Protocol for Delay Tolerant Networks," Proc. IEEE Sixth Int'l Conf. Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Comm. (WiMob '10), Oct. 2010.
[23] T. Abdelkader, K. Naik, A. Nayak, and N. Goel, "A Socially-Based Routing Protocol for Delay Tolerant Networks," Proc. IEEE GlobeCom '10, 2010.
[24] H. Jun, M.H. Ammar, M.D. Corner, and E.W. Zegura, "Hierarchical Power Management in Disruption Tolerant Networks with Traffic-Aware Optimization," Proc. SigComm, pp. 245-252, 2006.
[25] P. Costa, C. Mascolo, M. Musolesi, and G. Picco, "Socially-Aware Routing for Publish-Subscribe in Delay-Tolerant Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 748-760, June 2008.
34 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool