The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.04 - April (2012 vol.23)
pp: 735-743
Lei Kang , The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong
Jin Zhang , The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong
Kaishun Wu , The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong and Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou
Dian Zhang , Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong
Lionel M. Ni , The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong
RFID tag identification is a crucial problem in UHF RFID systems. Traditional tag identification algorithms can be classified into two categories, ALOHA-based and tree-based. Both of them are inefficient due to the incidental high coordination cost. In this paper, we bring CSMA into UHF RFID systems to enhance tag read rate by reducing coordination cost. However, it is not straightforward due to the simple hardware design of passive RFID tags, which is unable to sense the transmissions or collisions of other tags. To tackle this challenge, we propose receiver-based CSMA (RCSMA) in this paper. In RCSMA, the reader notifies the tags channel condition. According to different sensing results of reader's notifications, the tags take corresponding actions, e.g., random back off. RCSMA does not require special RFID tag hardware design. An absorbing Markov chain model is presented to analyze the performance of RCSMA and shown to be consistent with the simulation results. Compared with optimized ALOHA-based algorithms and optimized tree-based algorithms, RCSMA can enhance the tag read rate by 30-70 percent under different reader and tag data rates.
RFID systems; CSMA; tag identification.
Lei Kang, Jin Zhang, Kaishun Wu, Dian Zhang, Lionel M. Ni, "RCSMA: Receiver-Based Carrier Sense Multiple Access in UHF RFID Systems", IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol.23, no. 4, pp. 735-743, April 2012, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2011.240
[1] EPCglobal, "EPC Radio-Frequency Identity Protocols Class 1 Generation 2 UHF RFID Protocol for Communications at 860MHz-960MHz," Version 1.2.0, 2008.
[2] M. Buettner and D. Wetherall, "An Empirical Study of UHF RFID Performance," Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2008.
[3] C. Qian, H.-L. Ngan, and Y. Liu, "Cardinality Estimation for Large-Scale RFID Systems," Proc. Ann. IEEE Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing and Comm. (PerCom '08), 2008.
[4] L. Xie, B. Sheng, C.C. Tan, H. Han, Q. Li, and D. Chen, "Efficient Tag Identification in Mobile RFID Systems," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2010.
[5] V. Namboodiri and L. Gao, "Energy Aware Tag Anti Collision Protocols for RFID Systems," Proc. Ann. IEEE Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing and Comm. (PerCom '07), 2007.
[6] M. Kodialam and T. Nandagopal, "Fast and Reliable Estimation Schemes in RFID Systems," Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2006.
[7] F. Schoute, "Dynamic Frame Length ALOHA," IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 565-568, Apr. 1983.
[8] L. Pan and H. Wu, "Smart Trend-Traversal: A Low Delay and Energy Tag Arbitration Protocol for Large RFID Systems," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2009.
[9] J. Myung and W. Lee, "Adaptive Splitting Protocols for RFID Tag Collision Arbitration," Proc. ACM MobiHoc, 2006.
[10] J.I. Capetanakis, "Tree Algorithms for Packet Broadcast Channels," IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. IT-25, no. 5, pp. 505-515, Sept. 1979.
[11] D.R. Hush and C. Wood, "Analysis of Tree Algorithm for RFID Arbitration," Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Information Theory, p. 107, 1998.
[12] C. Law, K. Lee, and K.-Y. Siu, "Efficient Memoryless Protocol for Tag Identification," Proc. Int'l Workshop Discrete Algorithms and Methods for Mobile Computing and Comm., pp. 75-84, Aug. 2000.
[13] M.Z. Brodsky and R.T. Morris, "In Defense of Wireless Carrier Sense," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2009.
[14] LAN/MAN Standards Committee, "Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications," IEEE Std 802.11-2007, 2007.
[15] S. Sen, R.R. Choudhury, and S. Nelakuditi, "CSMA/CN: Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Notification," Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2010.
[16] T.K. Apostolopoulos, E.D. Sykas, and E.N. Protonotarios, "Analysis of a New Retransmission Control Algorithm for Slotted CSMA LAN's," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. C-36, no. 6, pp. 692-701, June 1987.
[17] R.S. Varga, Matrix Iterative Analysis, second ed. Springer, 2002.
[18] M. Zhang, T. Li, S. Chen, and B. Li, "Using Analog Network Coding to Improve the RFID Reading Throughput," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), June 2010.
[19] B. Sheng, Q. Li, and W. Mao, "Efficient Continuous Scanning in RFID Systems," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2010.
[20] L. Ni, Y. Liu, Y.C. Lau, and A. Patil, "Landmarc: Indoor Location Sensing Using Active RFID," Proc. Ann. IEEE Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing and Comm. (PerCom '03), 2003.
[21] L. Ravindranath, V.N. Padmanabhan, and P. Agrawal, "Sixthsense: RFID Based Enterprise Intelligence," Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys '08), 2008.
[22] Y. Zhang, M.G. Amin, and S. Kaushik, "Localization and Tracking of Passive RFID Tags Based on Direction Estimation," Int'l J. Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2007, pp. 1-10, 2007.
[23] T.F. Bechteler and H. Yenigun, "2-D Localization and Identification Based on SAW ID-Tags at 2.5 GHz," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 1584-1590, May 2003.
[24] J.G. Kemeny and J.L. Snell, Finite Markov Chains. Springer-Verlag, 1976.
[25] D. Zhang, Y. Yang, D. Cheng, S. Liu, and L.M. Ni, "COCKTAIL: An RF-Based Hybrid Approach for Indoor Localization," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC '10), 2010.
[26] Simulator Source Code, , 2011.
19 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool