The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.08 - August (2011 vol.22)
pp: 1415-1423
Feng Wang , Simon Fraser University, Burnaby
Dan Wang , The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
Jiangchuan Liu , Simon Fraser University, Burnaby
Wireless sensor networks have been widely used for ambient data collection in diverse environments. While in many such networks the nodes are randomly deployed in massive quantity, there is a broad range of applications advocating manual deployment. A typical example is structure health monitoring, where the sensors have to be placed at critical locations to fulfill civil engineering requirements. The raw data collected by the sensors can then be forwarded to a remote base station (the sink) through a series of relay nodes. In the wireless communication context, the operation time of a battery-limited relay node depends on its traffic volume and communication range. Hence, although not bounded by the civil-engineering-like requirements, the locations of the relay nodes have to be carefully planned to achieve the maximum network lifetime. The deployment has to not only ensure connectivity between the data sources and the sink, but also accommodate the heterogeneous traffic flows from different sources and the dominating many-to-one traffic pattern. Inspired by the uniqueness of such application scenarios, in this paper, we present an in-depth study on the traffic-aware relay node deployment problem. We develop optimal solutions for the simple case of one source node, both with single and multiple traffic flows. We show however that the general form of the deployment problem is difficult, and the existing only connectivity-guaranteed solutions cannot be directly applied here. We then transform our problem into a generalized version of the Euclidean Steiner Minimum Tree problem (ESMT). Nevertheless, we face further challenges as its solution is in continuous space and may yield fractional numbers of relay nodes, where simple rounding of the solution can lead to poor performance. We thus develop algorithms for discrete relay node assignment, together with local adjustments that yield high-quality practical solutions. Our solution has been evaluated through both numerical analysis and ns-2 simulations and compared with state-of-the-art approaches. The results show that for all test cases where the continuous space optimal solution can be computed within acceptable time frames, the network lifetime achieved by our solution is very close to the upper bound of the optimal solution (the difference is less than 13.5 percent). Moreover, it achieves up to 6-14 times improvement over the existing traffic-oblivious strategies.
Wireless sensor networks, data collection, deployment, traffic-aware, relay node.
Feng Wang, Dan Wang, Jiangchuan Liu, "Traffic-Aware Relay Node Deployment: Maximizing Lifetime for Data Collection Wireless Sensor Networks", IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol.22, no. 8, pp. 1415-1423, August 2011, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2011.20
[1] Structural Health Monitoring for Guangzhou New TV Tower Using Sensor Networks, benchmark /, 2011.
[2] J. Bredin, E. Demaine, M. Hajiaghayi, and D. Rus, "Deploying Sensor Networks with Guaranteed Capacity and Fault Tolerance," Proc. ACM MobiHoc, 2005.
[3] C. Buragohain, D. Agrawal, and S. Suri, "Power Aware Routing for Sensor Database," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2005.
[4] J. Chang and L. Tassiulas, "Energy Conserving Routing in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2000.
[5] C. Gui and P. Mohapatra, "Power Conservation and Quality of Surveillance in Target Tracking Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2004.
[6] W. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, "Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Hawaii Int'l Conf. System Sciences (HICSS), 2000.
[7] Y.T. Hou, Y. Shi, H.D. Sherali, and S.F. Midkiff, "Prolonging Sensor Network Lifetime with Energy Provisioning and Relay Node Placement," Proc. IEEE Second Ann. Comm. Soc. Conf. Sensor and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks (SECON), 2005.
[8] H. Karl and A. Willig, Protocols and Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks. Wiley, 2005.
[9] A. Kashyap, S. Khuller, and M. Shayman, "Relay Placement for Higher Order Connectivity in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2006.
[10] J. Ko, Y. Ni, H. Zhou, J. Wang, and X. Zhou, "Investigation Concerning Structural Health Monitoring of an Instrumented Cable-Stayed Bridge," Proc. Structure and Infrastructure Eng., 2008.
[11] N. Li and J. Hou, "Localized Topology Control Algorithms for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1313-1324, Dec. 2005.
[12] N. Li, J. Hou, and L. Sha, "Design and Analysis of an MST-Based Topology Control Algorithm," IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 1195-1206, May 2005.
[13] Q. Li, J. Aslam, and D. Rus, "Online Power-Aware Routing in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2001.
[14] G. Lin and G. Xue, "Steiner Tree Problem with Minimum Number of Steiner Points and Bounded Edge-Length," Information Processing Letters, vol. 69, pp. 53-57, 1999.
[15] E.L. Lloyd and G. Xue, "Relay Node Placement in Wireless Sensor Networks," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 134-138, Jan. 2007.
[16] S. Meguerdichian, F. Koushanfar, M. Potkonjak, and M.B. Srivastava, "Coverage Problems in Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2001.
[17] S. Misra, S.D. Hong, G. Xue, and J. Tang, "Constrained Relay Node Placement in Wireless Sensor Networks to Meet Connectivity and Survivability Requirements," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2008.
[18] S. Olariu and I. Stojmenovic, "Design Guidelines for Maximizing Lifetime and Avoiding Energy Holes in Sensor Networks with Uniform Distribution and Uniform Reporting," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2006.
[19] R. Ramanathan and R. Rosales-Hain, "Topology Control of Multihop Wireless Networks Using Transit Power Adjustment," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2000.
[20] L. Selavo, A. Wood, Q. Cao, T. Sookoor, H. Liu, A. Srinivasan, Y. Wu, W. Kang, J. Stankovic, D. Young, and J. Porter, "LUSTER: Wireless Sensor Network for Environmental Research," Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), 2007.
[21] S. Singh, M. Woo, and C. Raghavendra, "Power-Aware Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, 1998.
[22] R. Wattenhofer, L. Li, P. Bahl, and Y. Wang, "Distributed Topology Control for Power Efficient Operation in Multihop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2001.
[23] G. WernerAllen, K. Lorincz, J. Johnson, J. Lees, and M. Welsh, "Fidelity and Yield in a Volcano Monitoring Sensor Network," Proc. USENIX Symp. Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI), 2006.
[24] K. Xu, H. Hassanein, and G. Takahara, "Relay Node Deployment Strategies in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks: Multiple-Hop Communication Case," Proc. IEEE Second Ann. Comm. Soc. Conf. Sensor and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks (SECON), 2005.
[25] G. Xue, T.P. Lillys, and D.E. Dougherty, "Computing the Minimum Cost Pipe Network Interconnecting One Sink and Many Sources," SIAM J. Optimization, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 22-42, Oct. 1999.
[26] G. Xue and Y. Ye, "An Efficient Algorithm for Minimizing a Sum of Euclidean Norms with Applications," SIAM J. Optimization, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1017-1036, Nov. 1997.
[27] W. Zhang, G. Xue, and S. Misra, "Fault-Tolerant Relay Node Placement in Wireless Sensor Networks: Problems and Algorithms," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2007.
27 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool