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Issue No. 11 - November (2010 vol. 21)
ISSN: 1045-9219
pp: 1595-1610
Konstantinos Kleisouris , Rutgers University, Piscataway
Yingying Chen , Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken
Jie Yang , Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken
Richard P. Martin , Rutgers University, Piscataway
We show that signal strength variability can be reduced by employing multiple low-cost antennas at fixed locations. We further explore the impact of this reduction on wireless localization by analyzing a representative set of algorithms ranging from fingerprint matching, to statistical maximum likelihood estimation, to threshold bounding of signal fingerprints, and to multilateration. Using an indoor wireless testbed, we provide experimental evaluation of the localization performance under multiple antennas. We found that in nearly all cases the performance of localization algorithms improved when using multiple antennas. Specifically, the median and the 90th percentile error can be reduced up to 70 percent. Additionally, we found that multiple antennas improve the localization stability significantly, up to 100 percent improvement, when there are small-scale three-dimensional movements of a mobile device around a given location.
Indoor localization, fingerprints, received signal strength, antennas, multipath fading effect, IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.15.4, signal-to-distance propagation model, accuracy, stability.

R. P. Martin, Y. Chen, J. Yang and K. Kleisouris, "Empirical Evaluation of Wireless Localization when Using Multiple Antennas," in IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol. 21, no. , pp. 1595-1610, 2010.
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